We continue with the informative excerpts from "Darwin's Black Box" by Michael Behe here in part 3.
Excerpts from Pages 15-22 of Chapter 1. "... It is the astonishing complexity of subcellular organic structures that has forced the question, How could all this have evolved? (page 15) [Behe then goes on for several pages discussing the molecular details of vision, things which Darwin knew nothing about.] ... Each of the anatomical steps and structures that Darwin thought were so simple actually involves staggeringly complicated biochemical processes that cannot be papered over with rhetoric. ... Now the black box of the cell has been opened, and the infinitesimal world that stands revealed must be explained" (page 22).
Excerpts from Chapter 2, Under the Heading "Irreducible Complexity and the Nature of Mutation."
Excerpts Toward the End of Chapter 7.
Excerpts from Chapter 9, "Intelligent Design," Under the Heading "Detection of Design."
Excerpts from Chapter 11, "Science, Philosophy, Religion," under the Heading "The Dilemma." "... The result of these cumulative efforts to investigate the cell - to investigate life at the molecular level - is a loud, clear, piercing cry of 'design!' The result is so unambiguous and so significant that it must be ranked as one of the greatest achievements in the history of science. ...
Why does the scientific community not greedily embrace its startling discovery? ... The dilemma is that while one side of the elephant is labeled intelligent design, the other side might be labeled God" (pages 232, 233).
Behe goes on for quite a few pages discussing some of the main reasons why so many don't want to leave room for God and His creation.
EXCERPTS FROM "DARWIN ON TRIAL" BY PHILLIP E. JOHNSON (Inter-Varsity Press, 2nd edition 1993). I purchased this book at the same time I purchased "Darwin's Black Box." I have heard quite a bit about Phillip Johnson over the past years, and I have heard a few brief interviews with him, but I hadn't read any of his books until this one. I knew that he was a professor of law who was being quite effective in pointing out very serious problems with the theory of evolution. I believe this book is quite effective. I quoted six pages from this book in Extended Note K.
I'll start by quoting what is written on the back cover of the book. "The controversial book that rocked the scientific establishment! Why? It shows that the theory of evolution is based not on fact but on faith - faith in philosophical naturalism. Phillip Johnson argues courageously that there simply is no vast body of empirical data supporting the theory. ...
With the intrigue of a mystery and the gripping detail of a court trial, Johnson takes readers through the evidence with the lawyer's skill he learned as a Berkeley professor of law specializing in the logic of arguments.
'Unquestionably the best critique of Darwinism I have ever read.' (Michael Denton, author of 'Evolution: A Theory in Crisis') - 'Shows just how Darwinian evolution has become an idol.' (Alvin Plantinga, University of Notre Dame) - 'Calm, comprehensive, and compellingly persuasive.' (Richard John Neuhaus, editor, 'First Things')
Phillip E. Johnson is a graduate of Harvard and the University of Chicago. He was a law clerk for Chief Justice Earl Warren and has taught law for over twenty years at the University of California at Berkeley."
Johnson tells us something about where he is coming from and his purpose for this book on page 14, "I am a philosophical theist and a Christian. ... My purpose is to examine the scientific evidence on its own terms, being careful to distinguish the evidence itself from any religious or philosophical bias that might distort our interpretation of that evidence. ... The question I want to investigate is whether Darwinism is based upon a fair assessment of the scientific evidence....
... Creation-science is not science, said the Academy [National Academy of Sciences] in its argument to the Supreme Court, because 'it fails to display the most basic characteristic of science: reliance upon naturalistic explanations. ...
The Academy...defined 'science' in such a way that advocates of supernatural creation may neither argue for their own position nor dispute the claims of the scientific establishment. ...
... ...the very persons who insist upon keeping religion and science separate are eager to use their science as a basis for pronouncements about religion. The literature of Darwinism is full of anti-theistic conclusions, such as that the universe was not designed and has no purpose, and that we humans are the product of blind natural processes that care nothing about us. What is more, these statements are not presented as personal opinions but as the logical implications of evolutionary science. ..." (pages 7-9).
Excerpts from Chapter 4, "The Fossil Problem" (pages 45-62). Johnson demonstrates that the fossil record doesn't back up what the evolutionists are saying, and gives a few quotations from some of them to prove the point.
Excerpts from Chapter 9, "The Rules of Science" (pages 113-124). "... Naturalism assumes the entire realm of nature to be a closed system of material causes and effects, which cannot be influenced by anything from 'outside.' ...science, which studies only the natural, is our only reliable path to knowledge. ...
...the positive evidence that Darwinian evolution either can produce or has produced important biological innovations is nonexistent. ..." (pages 116-120).
Excerpts from Chapter 10, "Darwinist Religion" (pages 125-134).
Excerpts from Chapter 12, "Science and Pseudoscience" (pages 147-156).
Excerpts from the Epilogue, "The Book ["Darwin on Trial"] and Its Critics."
EXCERPTS FROM "REASON IN THE BALANCE: THE CASE AGAINST NATURALISM, IN SCIENCE, LAW AND EDUCATION" BY PHILLIP E. JOHNSON (Inter-Varsity Press, 1995; I quoted two pages from this book in Extended Note K):
Excerpts from the Introduction. "... The most influential intellectuals in America and around the world are mostly naturalists, who assume that God exists only as an idea in the minds of religious believers. In our greatest universities, naturalism - the doctrine that nature is 'all there is' - is the virtually unquestioned assumption that underlies not only natural science but intellectual work of all kinds. ... ...rationality requires that we recognize the Creator as the imaginary being he always has been, and that we rely only on things that are real, such as ourselves and the material world of nature. Reliance on the guidance of an imaginary supernatural being is called superstition.
Naturalism in the Academy. The domination of naturalism over intellectual life is not affected by the fact that some religious believers and active churchgoers hold prestigious academic appointments. With very few exceptions, these believers maintain their respectability by tacitly accepting the naturalistic rules that define rationality in the universities. They explicitly or implicitly concede that their theism is a matter of 'faith' and agree to leave the realm of 'reason' to the agnostics. This is true in every field of study, but especially so in natural science, the discipline that has the authority to describe physical reality for all the others. A biologist may believe in God on Sundays, but he or she had better not bring that belief to the laboratory on Monday with the idea that it has any bearing on the nature and origin of living organisms. For professional purposes, atheistic and theistic biologists alike must assume that nature is all there is.
Natural science is thus based on naturalism. What a science based on naturalism tells us, not surprisingly, is that naturalism is true. Because of the authority of science, the assumption that naturalism is true dominates all the disciplines of the university. As the famous Harvard paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson straightforwardly put it, the 'meaning of evolution' - that is to say, the guiding premise of the branch of natural science that studies the history of life - is that 'man is the result of a purposeless and natural process that did not have him in mind.' ...
These are not idiosyncratic statements of personal opinion, but reflections of the orthodox understanding of evolution that is unchallenged within mainstream science. ...".
Naturalism in Popular Culture.
Excerpts from Chapter 3, "The Grand Metaphysical Story of Science" (pages 51-70). "… Modernism rests on the grand metaphysical story of science, and the degree to which the story has been successfully told rests largely on the Darwinian theory of evolution. For scientific naturalists the story and the theory are virtually sacrosanct…" (page 70).
Excerpts from Chapter 8, "Education" (pages 155-171).
EXCERPTS FROM "INTELLIGENT DESIGN: THE BRIDGE BETWEEN SCIENCE AND THEOLOGY" BY WILLIAM A. DEMBSKI (Inter-Varsity Press, 1999; I quoted six pages from this book in Extended Note K):
I had never heard of the author when I started this paper on Genesis chapters 1-3. "William A. Dembski holds a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Illinois at Chicago. He also has earned degrees in theology and psychology. He is the recipient of two fellowships from the National Science Foundation and currently is a senior fellow of the Discovery Institute for the Renewal of Science and Culture. He has done postdoctoral work at the University of Chicago, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University and Northwestern University. Dembski has written numerous scholarly articles and is the author of the critically acclaimed 'The Design Inference' (Cambridge) as well as the editor of 'Mere Creation' (Inter-Varsity Press)."
I'll include several quotations that I took from the internet that speak of the author and/or the book. "William Dembski is perhaps the very brightest of a new generation of scholars willing to challenge the most sacred twentieth-century intellectual idol - the unproven notion that all of life can be explained in terms of natural selection and mutations." (Henry F. Schaeffer III, Graham Perdue Professor and Director, Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia) - "William Dembski is the Isaac Newton of information theory, and since this is the Age of Information, that makes Dembski one of the most important thinkers of our time. His 'law of the conservation of information' represents a revolutionary breakthrough. ((I had a footnote: I’ll quote a sentence from the Preface of "Intelligent Design" that deals with "the law of the conservation of information." "From this law it follows that information is not reducible to natural causes and that the origin of information is best sought in intelligent causes" (page 18). Dembski deals with this law extensively in chapter 6, but it is beyond the scope of this paper to get into those details. I'll quote two sentences from that chapter, "Since natural causes are precisely those characterized by chance, law or a combination of the two, the broad conclusion of the last section may be restated as follows: NATURAL CAUSES ARE INCAPABLE OF GENERATING CSI [complex specified information]. I call this result the law of conservation of information, or LCI for short" (page 170). And I'll quote a sentence from the first paragraph of chapter 6, "The great myth of modern evolutionary biology is that information can be gotten on the cheap without recourse to intelligence" (page 153).)) … He convincingly diagnoses our present confusions about the relationship between science and theology and offers a promising alternative." (Rob Koons, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Texas) - "William Dembski is one of the main leaders of the intelligent design movement. He made it his first priority to state his thesis in the most rigorous possible form for a readership of academic philosophers and mathematicians. Having done that successfully, he now provides a popular treatment of the same issues. This is a must read for those who want to understand how we know that living organisms really are designed by a Creator." (Phillip E. Johnson, author of "Darwin on Trial") - "True science is never dogmatic. It follows the evidence of eyes and ears wherever it may lead. William Dembski argues, convincingly, that the evidence at hand, particularly in biology and biochemistry, leads inexorably to the conclusion that life could not exist without an intelligent designer. If Dembski is right - and I believe he is - then it is unscientific to deny the existence of God. ..." (Thomas G. West, professor of politics at the University of Dallas, senior fellow with the Claremont Institute, author of "Vindicating the Founders; Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America").
Excerpts from the Preface. "Intelligent design is three things: a scientific research program that investigates the effects of intelligent causes; an intellectual movement that challenges Darwinism and its naturalistic legacy; and a way of understanding divine action. Intelligent design therefore intersects science and theology. ..." (page 13).
"... It was Darwin's expulsion of design from biology that made possible the triumph of naturalism in Western culture. So, too, it will be intelligent design's reinstatement of design within biology that will be the undoing of naturalism in Western culture.
The Goal: Showing How Design Unseats Naturalism. The guiding question throughout this book is, If naturalism is false, how could we know it? The key to overturning naturalism is design, and not just the design of the universe taken as a whole but design within the universe, and especially within biology. ... The aim of this book then is to show how detecting design within the universe, and especially against the backdrop of biology and biochemistry, unseats naturalism. ..." (page 14).
"... How is design empirically detectable? [Chapter 5] answers that question. In order to detect design two features must be present, complexity and specification. Complexity guarantees that the object in question is not so simple that it can readily be attributed to chance. Specification guarantees that the object exhibits the right sort of pattern associated with intelligent causes. A single letter of the alphabet is specified without being complex. A long sequence of random letters is complex without being specified. … Specified complexity is how we detect design empirically. [Chapter 5] explains specified complexity and shows how it applies to Michael Behe's irreducibly complex biochemical systems. ..." (page 17).
Excerpts from Chapter 4, "Naturalism & Its Cure" (pages 97-121).
Excerpts from Chapter 5, "Reinstating Design Within Science" (pages 122-152). "... It's [the] worry of falsely attributing something to design...only to have it overturned later that has prevented design from entering science proper.
This worry, though perhaps justified in the past, is no longer tenable. There does in fact exist a rigorous criterion for distinguishing intelligently caused objects from unintelligently caused ones. ... The great breakthrough of the intelligent design movement has been to isolate and make precise this criterion. ..." (page 127).
Excerpts from Chapter 8, "The Act of Creation" (pages 211-236).
EXCERPTS FROM "SCIENCE AND EVIDENCE FOR DESIGN IN THE UNIVERSE BY MICHAEL J. BEHE, WILLIAM A. DEMBSKI, AND STEPHEN C. MEYER (Ignatius Press, 2nd printing 2002; I quoted three and one-half pages from this book in Extended Note K):
I quoted from the first two authors above, and much of what they say in this book is a repetition of what they said in the other books. Here I'll just quote from the Foreword and from Stephen C. Meyer, who "received his Ph.D. in the History of Philosophy and Science from the University of Cambridge for a dissertation on origin-of-life biology and the methodology of the historical sciences. He is currently Associate Professor of Philosophy at Whitworth College and the director of Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture. He has contributed to a number of books and is currently writing a book developing a scientific theory of biological design."
Excerpts from the Foreword. "... In chapter two, philosopher of science Stephen Meyer uses Dembski's method to examine evidence from the natural world. He first examines the so-called 'fine-tuning' of the laws of physics. ... ...he argues that intelligent design best explains the origin of the fine-tuning evidence. He then makes a similar argument about the origin of the information necessary to build a living cell. He notes that studies of the genetic molecule DNA reveal that it functions much in the same way as a computer code or written text. ... He concludes that the information content of DNA - like the information in a computer program or an ancient scroll - had an intelligent source. ..." (pages 11-13).
Excerpts from "Evidence for Design in Physics and Biology: From the Origin of the Universe to the Origin of Life" by Stephen C. Meyer (pages 53-111).
"... Beginning in the 1960s, physicists unveiled a universe apparently fine-tuned for the possibility of human life. They discovered that the existence of life in the universe depends upon a highly improbable but precise balance of physical factors. (("K. Giberson, 'The Anthropic Principle,' 'Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies' 9 (1997): 63-90, and response by Steven Yates, pp. 91-104." I have found Hugh Ross’s writings on this topic to be interesting and informative; those writings include the following: "Anthropic Principle," "Facts for Faith," Q1, 2002, pages 24-31; "The Fingerprint of God," 1991, pages 119-138; and chapters 13-17 in "The Creator and the Cosmos," 1993, 1995, 2001, pages 137-212; "Why the Universe is the Way It Is," 2008.)) ... Even very slight alterations in the values of many factors, such as the expansion rate of the universe, the strength of gravitational or electromagnetic attraction, or the value of Planck's constant, would render life impossible. [And there are many more such factors.] Physicists now refer to these factors as 'anthropic coincidences' [from the Greek "anthropos," which means "man"] (because they make life possible for man) and to the fortunate convergence of all these coincidences as the 'fine tuning of the universe.' [As Meyer points out, we are speaking of fine tuning of numbers like one part in 1 followed by 60 zeros for the expansion rate of the universe; or 1 followed by forty zeros for the force of gravity, for example. That is FINE TUNING!] Given the improbability of the precise ensemble of values represented by these constants, and their specificity relative to the requirements of a life-sustaining universe, many physicists have noted that the fine tuning strongly suggests design by a preexistent intelligence. As well-known British physicist Paul Davies has put it, 'the impression of design is overwhelming.'
... Is it possible that suddenly, without intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof for the existence of a Supreme Being? Was it God who stepped in and so providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?' ... Indeed, it is precisely the combination of the improbability (or complexity) of the settings and their specificity relative to the conditions required for a life-sustaining universe that seems to trigger the 'commonsense' recognition of design. ..." (pages 56-61).
[[I'll supplement this discussion on the fine tuning required to have life.
First I'll include a few excerpts from "The Creator and the Cosmos" by Hugh Ross that deals extensively with this topic (NavPress, 1993, 1995, 2001).
I'll quote a little from chapter 14, "A 'Just Right' Universe." "If it [the strong nuclear force] were just 2% weaker or 0.3% stronger than it actually is, life would be impossible at any time and any place within the universe [I'll skip their footnote]" (page 147). "Unless the number of electrons is equivalent to the number of protons to an accuracy of one part in [1 with 37 zeros] or better, electromagnetic forces in the universe would have so overcome gravitational forces that galaxies, stars, and planets never would have formed" (page 150).
"As described in chapter 5...for the universe to produce all the stars and planets necessary to explain the possibility of Earth sustaining physical life, the value of the cosmic mass density must be fine-tuned to better than one part in [1 with 60 zeros] and the value of the space energy density to better than one part in [1 with 120 zeros]. ..." (page 151).
"If the electromagnetic force relative to gravity were increased by just one part in [1 with 40 zeros] only large stars would form. And if it were decreased by [that amount] only small stars would form. But for life to be possible in the universe, both large and small stars must exist. ... [Ross goes on to say that at that time "thirty-five characteristics" that must be fine-tuned "for life of any kind to possibly exist" and he lists them. He mentioned that this list continues to grow, which I'll demonstrate as we continue]" (pages 153-157).
Chapter 16 is titled, "Earth: The Place for Life." Under the heading "Many Fine-Tuned Characteristics," Ross says "...Earth is prepared for physical life through a variety of finely-tuned characteristics of our galaxy group, galaxy, star, planet, collider [He is speaking of the collider (about the size of Mars) that apparently struck the earth, which resulted in the moon, in a greatly improved (thinner) atmosphere on the earth, and which brought important elements to the earth, etc.], and moon. He goes on to mention that this list that is always increasing was up to a hundred different characteristics at that time (which would have been about AD 2000) and he listed 66 of them. Ross puts the listing of 66 characteristics (on pages 188-193) under the heading, "Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Galaxy-Sun-Earth-Moon System for Life Support."
Chapter 8 of "Why the Universe is the Way it Is" by Hugh Ross (Baker Books, 2008) is titled "Why This Particular Planet, Star, Galaxy, and Universe?" I'll quote part of what Ross says under "The Case for Fine-Tuning Grows" (pages 121-124). "...table 8.1...illustrates how...evidence has accumulated from research into the laws of physics and the gross features of the universe. [Table 8-1 is essentially the same, if not exactly the same, as the list of thirty-five characteristics referred to in the preceding paragraphs. Table 8-1 shows that the "cosmic features that must be fine-tuned for any physical life to exist" went from 15 in 1988 to 140 in 2006.] ...table 8.2...offers the same kind of illustration based on research into the features of the Virgo supercluster, the Local Group, the Milky Way Galaxy [The Virgo supercluster contains the Local Group, which includes the Milky Way Galaxy, our galaxy.], the solar system, and Earth. [Table 8.2 is titled, "Galactic and Terrestrial Features That Must Be Fine-Tuned to Support Permanent Simple Life." In 1995 there were 41 "Fine-Tuned Features Observed," which gives the "Probability of Finding Within the Observable Universe a Life-Supportable Body with These Features" of .000(with 30 total zeros)1. By 2006 the numbers jumped to 676 (from 41) and .000(with 555 total zeros)1.] From 1995 to 2006, scientific evidence of the fine-tuning required for life's benefit became roughly a trillion trillion trillion trillion times stronger with each succeeding year's research. Such mounting evidence for fine-tuning shouts loudly that life must be more than a cosmic accident. The universe and its substructures must have been engineered to make physical life possible. ...
...table 8.4 augments the 2006 fine-tuning data (presented in table 8.2) by showing how the fine-tuning numbers decrease or increase depending on the complexity of the life-forms considered. Specifically, it shows the number of fine-tuned characteristics required for the support of each of three categories of life: ephemeral simple life ["briefly existing bacteria"], permanent simple life ["permanent bacteria"], and intelligent physical life capable of launching and sustaining a global high-technology civilization. [Table 8.4, "Detailed Breakdown of Evidence for Fine-Tuning (as of 2006)," shows that for "briefly existing bacteria" the "Fine-tuned Features Observed" is 501 and the "Probability of Finding a Life-Supportable Body" is .000(with 310 total zeros)1. For "Permanent bacteria" the numbers are 676 and .000(with 555 total zeros)1. And for "High-tech humans" the numbers jump to 824 and .000(with 1049 total zeros)1.]
According to the research data, an astronomical body capable of supporting human beings and equipping them to launch and sustain a global high-technology civilization demands at least 1 with 700 zeros times more fine-tuning than is necessary for support of ephemeral simple life. To put this number (1 with 700 zeros) into perspective, the total number of protons and neutrons in the observable universe amounts to 1 with 79 zeros.
Such a dramatic difference compels the conclusion that the entire universe and all it contains exists and has been exquisitely designed for the purpose of making possible a global high-tech human civilization. Such a conclusion implies enormous significance and high purposes for the human species and their civilization. The next few chapters are devoted to deciphering at least some of them."
FURTHER EXCERPTS THAT HELP EXPLAIN DNA: In the brief excerpts contained in this paper, I wasn't able to include any excerpts dealing with the details of DNA. I don't know about you, but I find this information to be very interesting. We are seeing the handiwork of God in His creation of the universe, including His creation of DNA and the complex proteins and the very-much-more-complex cells that make life possible. I'll supplement what was said above regarding DNA and the proteins that are generated according to the genetic information contained in the DNA. Don't turn your mind off; you can understand the basics of the DNA molecule. And when you understand DNA, you are ready to understand (on a basic level) RNA, genes, and chromosomes. We'll briefly discuss each of these things as we continue. I'll skip that information from Extended Note K for this paper. I had two and one-half pages here in Extended Note K.
EXCERPTS FROM "SIGNS OF INTELLIGENCE: UNDERSTANDING INTELLIGENT DESIGN" (Edited by William A. Dembski & James M. Kushiner [Baker Book House Company, 2001]. There are fifteen essays by different authors included in this book, counting the Introduction. I’ll include excerpts from three of the essays. I had five and one-half pages here in Extended Note K.):
Excerpts from Chapter 1, "The Intelligent Design Movement: Challenging the Modernist Monopoly on Science" by Phillip E. Johnson (pages 25-41).
I quoted from this author above. The bio here mentions that Phillip Johnson is "an elder in the Presbyterian Church (USA)."
I quoted one and one-half pages from what Johnson said in Extended Note K, but I won't be able to quote any of that information here. For one thing, he shows how those who are pushing evolution, which "is taught in public education and promoted in the national media" are desperate to stamp out creationism (which they [think they] know is wrong), even to use dishonest means like teaching half truths (when they try to give the impression that microevolution proves macroevolution, for example) or when they don't teach students facts that would undermine their dogma. Johnson is convinced that the truth will eventually prevail.
Excerpts from Chapter 4, "The Regeneration of Science and Culture: The Cultural Implications of Scientific Materialism Versus Intelligent Design" by John G. West Jr. (pages 60-69).
"John G. West Jr., Ph.D. (government, The Claremont Graduate School), is assistant professor of political science at Seattle Pacific University, senior fellow of the Discovery Institute, and associate director of the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture. ...."
"To appreciate fully the cultural implications of intelligent design, one first must understand the cultural damage inflicted by scientific materialism, the paradigm it seeks to replace.
... ...materialism became enshrined as the reigning philosophy of Western culture largely due to the work of Charles Darwin. ...
Scientific materialism...had far-reaching consequences for Western society. By claiming that all human thoughts and actions are dictated by either biology or environment, scientific materialists undermined traditional theories of human freedom and responsibility. By asserting that our moral beliefs were merely the products of heredity and environment, scientific materialists laid the groundwork for moral relativism. ...
... Indeed, the extent of the impact of scientific materialism on modern culture is hard to overstate.
... Although such purebred socialism never had a wide following in America, the economic determinism underlying it helped create the modern welfare state. ...
In the criminal justice system, scientific materialism likewise undermined theories of personal responsibility. ... In the new view, accountability and punishment were replaced with a model that regarded criminals as the helpless victims of environment and heredity. ..." (pages 60-63).
West goes on to briefly discuss how scientific materialism has a powerful negative impact in medicine (e.g., abortion, "infanticide for children with disabilities, and the growing practice of assisted suicide"), "traditional beliefs about family life and marriage," "the field of education," and a few other areas. "Thus have the ideas of scientific materialism influenced virtually every area of modern culture. Ideas have consequences, and in the modern era scientific ideas have had particularly momentous consequences for society. ..." (page 65).
Excerpts from Chapter 11, "The Cambrian Explosion: The Fossil Record and Intelligent Design" by Robert F. DeHaan and John L. Wiester (pages 145-156).
"Robert F. DeHaan, Ph.D. (human development, University of Chicago), is retired; he taught developmental psychology at the University of Chicago and Hope College."
"John L. Wiester (B.A., geology, Stanford University) is chairman of the Science Education Commission of the American Scientific Affiliation, an association of Christians in the sciences, and has taught geology at Biola University for the past five years. He is author of 'The Genesis Connection'  and coauthor of 'Teaching Science in a Climate of Controversy' , as well as 'What's Darwin Got to Do with It?' ."
I quoted more that two pages from this article in Extended Note K. I won't be able to quote any of that information here, but the authors show that the testimony of the fossil record from the Cambrian explosion demonstrates intelligent design. I'll include some excerpts later that explain the Cambrian explosion, which is quite important.
We will continue this verse-by-verse study of Gen. 1:1-2:3 in Part 4 with a few more excerpts from Extended Note K, "Intelligent Design, Not Evolution."
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