Romans 9-11 Commentary
Rom 9:1 I tell a truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience testifying jointly to me in a Holy Breath (pneuma/breeze), Rom 9:2 that I have great sadness (lupe) and continual sorrow (odune/dejected) in my heart (kardia). Paul is really cut up about this matter.
Rom 9:3 For I myself wish I was excommunicated (anathema) from Christ for my brothers, my relatives in the flesh, This is a profound statement that Paul would give up his special relationship with Christ for the sake of his fellow Israelites many of whom would not enter the kingdom.
Rom 9:4 who are Israelites, to whom the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the Law, and the service, and the announcements (epaggelia/messages) It was to the children of Israel (Jacob) that Yahweh Elohim gave Himself and all He promised. No other race was He devoted nor pledged to. He had longed for them all to love and honour and trust Him. Sadly it wasn't to be for many of them chose to disobey and not trust Him.
Rom 9:5 who the fathers, and from whom into the flesh Messiah (christos/anointed) came over all, Yahweh blessed during this age (eis aion). Truly. The fathers of Israel and Jesus their Messiah came for the lost among the children of Israel. And Yahweh Elohim blessed these ones during that age (not speaking here of ages to come.) Of this was Paul was absolutely sure.
Rom 9:6 Not because the Word (logos) of Yahweh fell away (ekpipto), for they are not all Israel, the ones from Israel; The promises of Yahweh did not fail but not all who expected to receive the promises did for the following reasons. First Paul explains that not all the descendants of Jacob (Israel) are the ones that Yahweh blesses. In other words, just because you are born into an Israelite household doesn’t automatically entitle you to Yahweh’s promises. A son of Jacob needs something else.
In our day someone might say, "Not all of the Church is the Church" meaning that of the 100% who call themselves Christians, less than 100% actually trust Jesus. Likewise true Israel who trusted in Yahweh was only a fraction of the 100% with Israelite blood.
Rom 9:7 Neither because they are the seed (sperma) of Abraham, all children. On the contrary (alla), “In Isaac shall your seed be called (kaleo/named.)” To explain the point, Paul adds that just because a child of Jacob is a descendant of Abraham (who Yahweh gave the promises to), this does not automatically qualify children of Israeh for Yahweh’s blessings. Abraham had several children but only those through his son Isaac received the blessing. So a son of Jacob needs also to be called by Yahweh.
Rom 9:8 That is, the children of the flesh these are not children of Yahweh; but the children of the promise are listed as a seed. Paul explains his point by saying it is only the children of Jacob who lived as Abraham had lived (ie by faith) that counted them as children of the promises. Others of the sons of Jacob who did not live by faith, would not receive His blessings.
Rom 9:9 For this the word of announcement (epaggelia): "At this time I will come and Sarah (Sarra) shall have a son." Paul quotes Gen 18:10 “I will come back to you at the time of life and lo Sarah your wife shall have a son.” (The “I” is Yahweh plus 2 other Elohim. See Gen 18:2, 9, 16, 22.) Paul shows that only Isaac, this son of Abraham, would inherit the promise (not other sons of Abraham.)
Rom 9:10 And not alone, but Rebecca (Rebekkah) also had conceived one by our father Isaac, Likewise, just as Sarah only had one son (Isaac) who would receive the promise, Paul refers to Gen 25:21- 23 where it records Isaac’s wife Rebecca about to bear 2 sons (Esau and Jacob) by Yahweh’s announcement but only one son (Jacob) would receive the promises.
Rom 9:11 For not yet been born, neither having done any good or bad that the purpose (prothesis) of Yahweh by selection (ekloge) would remain, not from toil but from calling, Neither of the 2 sons of Rebecca (Esau and Jacob) had been born when Yahweh spoke to her and said, “Two nations in your womb; two communities will be separated from the abdomen; one community shall be more alert than the other; the elder shall serve the younger.” (Gen 25:23) Yahweh wasn’t going to base His purposes upon any good or evil they did. He would base it purely upon His own will to choose.
Rom 9:12 It was said to her, "The elder shall serve the younger." Paul quotes Gen 25:23. Esau was the elder, Jacob was the younger. Esau would serve Jacob.
Rom 9:13 As it is written, "Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated." Paul quotes Malachi 1:2-3. Yahweh addressed Israel and said, “I have loved you. You ask how have I loved you. Was not Esau, Jacob’s brother? Yet I loved Jacob and hated Esau and laid waste his hills and his inheritance…” Yahweh selected Jacob and didn’t select Esau, despite being from the same family. Paul's point is that within one family, some are selected and some are not, and such are the children of Israel – some are true Israel and some are not.
Rom 9:14 What shall we say then? Injustice with Yahweh does not follow. Since God hated Esau and loved Jacob, was Yahweh being unfair? No, injustice is not the conclusion.
Rom 9:15 For He said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion." Paul quotes Exod 33:19 where Moses asks about Yahweh's people Israel and Yahweh replies: “I will favour (chanan) whom I will favour and have compassion (racham) on whom I will have compassion.” So Yahweh isn't being unfair but He is being kind and soon we shall read why He chooses just one nation instead of people from other nations.
Rom 9:16 So then it is not Yahweh choosing nor hastily running ahead but having compassion. Hence Yahweh's selection of Isaac and Jacob is not based on a preference hastily made but on His compassion for these particular sons.
Rom 9:17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "Even for this same purpose I have raised you up, that I might show My power (dunamis) in you, and that My name might be declared to all the land (erets/ge)." Paul quotes Exod 9:16 to show how Yahweh appointed Pharaoh for this task. That all the people in the land (not people across Planet Earth) would see His power and know that the children of Israel were His blessing. Yahweh Elohim saved Noah and his 3 sons, one of whom was Ham whose descendants went to Egypt among other places. So this Pharaoh would have been a descendant of Ham and thus a son of Yahweh Elohim. This is how Yahweh could raise him for that purpose.
Rom 9:18 Therefore He has mercy on whom He determines, and whom He wills, He makes stubborn. In order to show His mercy to Israel, Yahweh needed the Pharaoh to be stubborn and so He made him so.
Rom 9:19 You will then say to me, who does He still blame, for who could oppose His resolve (boulema)? If Pharaoh couldn't oppose Yahweh's will, then was Pharaoh to blame for his stubborn actions?
Rom 9:20 Yes, but, O man, who are you to contradict Yahweh? The thing moulded (plasma) shall not say to the moulder (plasso), who made me like this? Since Yahweh created all the sons of Noah and their descendants with all their own personalities, why should they question this? He knew the beginning from the end of that age, and held everything together for His purposes.
Rom 9:21 Holds not the potter mastery over the clay? Of the same lump to make one vessel of value (time) and another of disgrace (atimia). Yahweh creates and moulds as He sees fit.
Rom 9:22 If Yahweh determined to show strong desire (orge) and make His power known, endured with much patience the vessels of strong desire fitted to loss (apoleia) Yahweh didn't act hastily but patiently waited until the right time to fulfil His purpose of saving His people from the great loss they had suffered in Egypt
Rom 9:23 and that He might make known the accomplishment of His glory (doxa) on the vessels of compassion which He had prepared in advance to glory; Yahweh hundreds of years beforehand had planned to bless Israel and the prophets prophesied about the end of the age so that believers among the 12 tribes of Israel would know His compassion for them.
Rom 9:24 and we whom He has called out, not from the Judeans (Ioudsais/Jews) only but also from the nations (ethnos). Yahweh's promise was not just for Judean (Jewish) Israelites but also for Israelites from the nations. Now we are about to see what Paul means by “the nations.” He doesn't mean every nation on Planet Earth. He only means former Israelites in whatever nations they were living.
Rom 9:25 As He also says in Hosea, "I will call My people who were not My people; and loved which were not loved." To prove who the nations are that Paul has been called to, he quotes Hosea 1:6 and 2:23. Yahweh addresses the fate of the northern House of Israel who had been children of Yahweh but are now about to be cut off from the covenant and become “Not My people.” But He also promises them that one day (the Messiah) will rejoin the abandoned House of Israel together with the faithful southern House of Judah (Jews) and the “middle wall of partition” as Paul calls it will come down and the two be one people again. So the Not My People were children of Israel scattered among the nations.
Rom 9:26 And it will be in the place where it was said to them, "You not My people; there they shall be called sons of the living God." Paul again quotes Hosea 2:23. Hence it is to the lost scattered House of Israel (Not My People) among the nations that Paul is sent by Yahweh, all of whom were sons of Jacob but not Jews. (Whereas Peter was sent primarily to the southern House of Judah - Jewish Israelites.) That's why Paul only goes to those nations where they were living and why he later declared that all had received the gospel, thus bringing an end to the Great Commission.
Rom 9:27 Isaiah also exclaims over Israel, "Provided that the number of the sons of Israel is as the sands of the sea, a remnant (kataleimma/few) will be protected.” If Israelites have a great enough number, some will be protected by Yahweh when Jerusalem and its temple are beseiged and burned to the ground from Passover 70AD and over 1 million Jews lose their lives during this war.
Rom 9:28 For He will entirely complete (sunteleo) the Word (logos) and cut it short (suntemno) in righteousness, because a shortened Word will Yahweh make over the land (ge)." Yahweh declares that His purpose for blessing Israel is drawing to a quick close and His promises will come to a close in that land.
Rom 9:29 And as Isaiah said before, "Unless the Lord of armies (sabaoth) had left us a seed, we might have been as Sodom (Sedom/burnt), and might have been compared to Gomorrah (Amorah/ruined heap)." Paul quotes Isa 1:9 who speaks of the House of Judah. Isaiah says, “had left us few survivors.” Without Yahweh's mercy, the House of Judah would have have had no survivors.
Rom 9:30 What shall we say then? That the nations, who did not pursue righteousness have eagerly possessed righteousness, but a righteousness which is of of faith. Paul has established that it was the Not My People (non Jewish Israelites) who had not been pursuing righteousness but now have eagerly possessed righeousness by faith through Jesus and come back into the Kingdon of Yahweh.
Rom 9:31 But Israel, who pursued a law of righteousness has not arrived at a law of righteousness. This Israel is the House of Judah (Jewish Israelites) of which Isiaiah is talking about (which Paul mentions again in v33.) Jewish Israel kept the law but not in the correct way (that is by trust in Yahweh.)
Rom 9:32 Why? Because not by faith, but accordingly by toil of Law. For this reason they tripped up on that stub of stone. The House of Jacob (particularly Jerusalem) stumbled because they pursued the Law by toiling and not by trusting Yahweh as Abraham had done.
Rom 9:33 As it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion (Sion/hill in Jerusalem) a tripping-stone and a snare-rock, but all who trust in Him shall not be shamed." Paul again quotes the prophet Isaiah 8:14-17. Yahweh Himself was the tripping stone, snare and noose. If they trusted Him and obeyed Him, all was fine. If they didn't, then He became the stone of stumbling. This applied to the whole House of Jacob – to both Houses of Israel and also to Jerusalem.
Rom 10:1 Brothers, my heart's delight (eudokia) and petition (deesis) to Yahweh for Israel is to be rescued. Paul really wants all Israelites to be rescued from the coming judgement when the Romans will utterly destroy Jerusalem and the temple and up to a million Israelites in 70AD. He doesn't want any of them to die.
Rom 10:2 For I myself am a witness that they have a zeal (zelos) for Yahweh, but not according to (personal) recognition (epignosis.) Paul appreciates Israel's zeal for Yahweh's printed word but their life is devoid of the Breath of Yahweh which infuses the word with life and truth and highlights what true righteousness is.
Rom 10:3 For not knowing (agnoeo) Yahweh's fairness (dikaiosune/rightness) and seeking to establish their own fairness, they have not submitted to the fairness of Yahweh. Because of their ignorance about Yahweh's ways, they have stumbled on 2 points: 1) creating their own standards of fairness, and 2) not following Yahweh's standards of fairness.
Rom 10:4 For Messiah (christos/anointed) is the point (telos) of the law (nomos) for fairness for all trusting. Jesus' trust in Yahweh was the start and end point of the Law.
Rom 10:5 For Moses writes of the fairness that is of the Law that "The man who does those things shall live by them." Paul quotes Lev 18:5 saying that the fairness of the Law must be lived.
Rom 10:6 But the fairness of faith (pistis) says this: Do not say in your heart, 'Who shall go up into the sky?' That is to bring anointing down;' Rom 10:7 or "Who shall descend into the deep?" that is, to bring up the anointing from death. Rom 10:8 But what does it say? "The utterance (rhema) is near you in your mouth and in your heart", that is, the utterance of faith which we herald (kerusso/proclaim). Paul quotes Deut 30:10-14 where Moses writes about keeping Yahweh Elohim's commandments as stated in the Law AND turning to Yahweh Elohim with all their heart and soul. He says that these things are not hidden. They don't have to go up to the sky to find them, nor across the sea to find them. But the word of Yahweh is with them constantly in their very breathing and speech.
Rom 10:9 Because provided you assent (homologeo) with your mouth (stoma) "Lord (kurios) Jesus", and trust by your heart that Yahweh has woken (egeiro) Him from death, you shall be rescued (sozo/saved). Speaking the truth that Jesus is the Messiah, and trusting Him as a living being would ensure the rescue of the believer from the coming wrath on that generation.
Rom 10:10 For the heart trusts in fairness, and the mouth assents to salvation. Rom 10:11 For the writing (graphe) says, "All trusting on Him shall not be shamed." Trusting in the living Jesus is therefore the ultimate means to escape the judgement which would shame the rest of Israel.
Rom 10:12 For there is no distinguishing both Jew (Ioudaios) and Hellenite (hellen/Greek speaker), for the same Lord of all is wealthy (plouteo) to all who appeal to Him. Whether Hebrew-speaking Jewish Israelite or Greek-speaking non-Jewish Israelite, Yahweh called all Israel, both from the House of Judah (Jews) and House of Israel (non Jews.)
Rom 10:13 "For all if they appeal to the name of the Lord will be rescued." Paul quotes Joel 2:32 "All who shall call out to Yahweh shall be rescued, for Mt Zion and Jerusalem shall be rescued, as Yahweh has said, and the remnant whom Yahweh shall call out to." The reason Paul quotes Joel is to show that Yahweh cares about His people Israel wherever they live whether Hebrew speaker in Judea or Greek speaker in the Greek nations. Yahweh is God of Israel wherever they are and any of them may call out to Him and He will be there for them.
Rom 10:14 How then shall they call in whom they have not trusted? And how shall they trust whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a herald? Paul now addresses the question of how to reach the lost Israelites who don't know they are lost. The only way for them to trust Yahweh is for someone to tell them about Jesus.
Rom 10:15 And how herald unless they are sent? As written, "How timely (horaios/right time) the feet of the announcement of peace announcing good (agathos)." Paul quotes Isa 52:7-10 which says that Yahweh Elohim reigns over Jerusalem and the watchmen would raise their voices and sing together when they saw Yahweh on his way to rescue Zion. The whole land would then see His rescue of His people.
Rom 10:16 But not all heeded the good message, for Isaiah says, "Lord, who has trusted our report (akoe)?" Paul quotes Isa 53:1 which speaks of the exile of those who did not trust. "Who has trusted our announcement and to whom has the forceful arm of Yahweh exiled (galah)?" Therefore not all Israelites would listen to the message and come to trust Yahweh. This was Paul's great sadness.
Rom 10:17 So then trusting is by hearing (akoe), and hearing through the utterance (rhema) of Yahweh. Only the utterance of Yahweh himself could bring a person to trust Him.
Rom 10:18 But I say, have they not heard? Yes indeed, "Their utterance (phthoggos) went out into all the land (ge), and their words (rhema) to the farthest (peras) of the inhabitants (oikumene.)" Paul quotes Psalm 19:4 which states, "The collective voice of the (glory of Elohim in the skies) has gone out to all the land and their words to the farthest inhabitants." So all of Israel had heard Yahweh's purposes wherever they lived.
Rom 10:19 But I say, is it not that Israel knew? Did not Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are no people, and by a foolish nation (goy goy) I will anger you." Paul quotes Deut 32:21. Prior to this in v9 Yahweh says, "Jacob is the lot of His inheritance." Then in v20, "They are a very perverse generation, children of no trust." Thev v21, "They have moved Me to jealousy... I will make them jealous by not a people, and be troubled by a foolish nation." Yahweh would bring a non-believing nation against them to provoke them to want Him.
Rom 10:20 But Isaiah states boldly and says, "I was found by the sought Me not; I became known to the not askers for Me." Paul quotes Isaiah 65:1 "I am sought by the asked not, and found by the sought not. Look look, to a nation not called by My name." This occurs after Jerusalem is burned asnd becoems a wilderness (see Isa 64:10-12.) In other words, when Yahweh abandons the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem in judgement, He calls out a new people to be His people, people who hadn't been seeking Him.
Rom 10:21 But to Israel He says, "All day long I have stretched forth My hands to a disobeying and gainsaying people." In contrast to the new people who will inherit His promises, Yahweh states that He has been very patient towards His disobedient people (the House of Judah.) But an end is coming to His patience.
Rom 11:1 I say then, has Yahweh cast away His people? Not so. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham (Abram), tribe (phule) of Benjamin. Paul asks if all of Israel has been cast away and implies not because Paul himself is one. His tribe was Benjamin so he was in the southern House of Judah (which comprised the tribes of Judah and Benjamin), and thus Paul was a Judean (Jew) and not from the northern House of Israel which had been scattered among the Nations by Yahweh.
Rom 11:2 Yahweh has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or know you not what the writing said in Elijah, how he pleaded to Elohim about Israel, relating, Rom 11:3 "Lord, they have killed Your prophets and dug up Your altars, and I am left remaining, and they seek my breath (psuche)." Rom 11:4 But what relates the response to him? "I have left behind for Myself 7000 men who have not bent a knee to Baal." Paul quotes I Kings 19:10-18. V18 says "I have left behind 7000 in Israel, all knees not bent to Baal." So Yahweh at that time did not cast away all Israelites but saved 7000 of them from the destruction that killed the rest.
Rom 11:5 Likewise in this present time there is also a remnant (leimma) according to the selection (ekloge) of grace (charis). Likewise in Paul's day, Yahweh would not cast away all Israelites but would reserve a remnant chosen by Yahweh by His grace.
Rom 11:6 But if by grace, then no longer by toil, otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if by toil, then no longer grace, otherwise toil is no longer toil. Grace and toil are two opposites in regards to Yahweh's selection. It is one or the other, and Paul says it is grace that is the deciding factor in who joins the remnant.
Rom 11:7 What then? Israel has not obtained what it sought, but the chosen obtained and the rest were hardened (poroo). Israel as a whole did not receive what they sought because they were hardened against the good news but a remnant among them were selected.
Rom 11:8 Even as it is written, "God gave to them a spirit of slumber, eyes not seeing, and ears not hearing" until this day. Paul quotes Isa 29:10 "For Yahweh poured out upon you (Zion) a breath of sleep and has closed your eyes..." Paul declares that the slumber He put Jerusalem into during Isaiah's day hundereds of years before was still in effect in Paul's day. So that most of Jerusalem and Judea were still asleep to the message.
Rom 11:9 And David said, "Let their meal table become a noose and a trap and a snare and a recompense to them.
Rom 11:10 Let their eyes be darkened to not see, and their back bend in union constantly." Paul quotes Psalm 69:22-23 "Let their meal table become a snare before them and their welfare a noose. Let their eyes be darkened to not see and their waist continually waver." So the majority of Israel couldn't see the bigger picture of what was happening to them because they were continually worn down by pressures around them.
Rom 11:11 I say then, have they tripped that they must fall? Not so. But by their apostasy, rescue came to the nations, to stimulate them to jealousy. Rom 11:12 And if their apostasy brought fulness to the order (kosmos), and their loss fulness to the nations (ethnos), how much more their being filled up? Once the majority of Israel realised that Yahweh was bringing back the nations into His covenant, the hope was that this would stimulate blinded Judah to want to have what the nations were having – that is, being reunited and filled up with with Yahweh Himself.
Rom 11:13 For I relate to you nations (ethnos) and as I am an apostle (apostolos) of the nations, I glorify my ministry, Here we find the object of Paul's message. He is addressing the nations and another reason we know they are only Israelites from those nations, is because Paul quotes from the Old Testament constantly, books which they would have known either well or in part.
Rom 11:14 So that I may provoke my own flesh and protect some of them. Paul sees the saving of the nations (ie the earlier apostasized and scattered House of Israel) as a catalyst/spur to also save some of his own House of Judah, the Judeans (Jews.)
Rom 11:15 For if their rejection restores the order (kosmos), what their admission except life from death? If Yahweh casts away many of His people (ie Jews) in order to reconcile the other portion of His body (the non-Jewish House of Israel living in the nations), then how wonderful will be the moment when the remnant of the Jews waken to their Messiah.
Rom 11:16 For if the firstfruit are holy, the dough lump is also; and if the root is holy, so also the branches. The kingdom of Yahweh is pure throughout with Jesus at the base.
Rom 11:17 And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and became a sharer with them of the root and richness of the olive tree,Rom 11:18 boast not against the branches. But if you boast, you do not carry the root, but the root you. When any Israelites were rejected from the covenant by Yahweh, they were broken off from the covenant and became wild olive trees (still able to be regrafted back in, says Paul in v23.) Wild olive trees could be grafted back in by Yahweh alone. The olive tree speaks of the 12 sons of Jacob. The root is the Messiah.
Rom 11:19 You may utter (ereo) then, "the branches were broken off so that I might be ingrafted." They might reason that some of Israel were rejected so that others could come in. But this is not the reason.
Rom 11:20 Well, faithlessness caused their rejection, but you stand by faith. Be not arrogant but fearful (phobeo). The reason some were rejected was because of their unbelief not because of the admission of others. So Paul warns the newly chosen to be wary of their new status. Rom 11:21 Because if Yahweh spares not the natural branches, perhaps He may not spare you.
Rom 11:22 Behold then the goodness and decisiveness of Yahweh. On the fallen, decisiveness; but on you, goodness, if you continue in goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off. Since trust in Yahweh is the key, they too may yet be rejected if they do not stand faithfully in Him. But if they do, then His goodness surrounds them.
Rom 11:23 And those too, if they do not remain in unbelief, will be grafted in. For Yahweh is able to ingraft them repeatedly (palin). Despite beimg rejected by Yahweh, He is able to ingraft any of Israel back in any time. When they were cut out, they became wild olive trees, that is living outside Him. When they were grafted back in, they became part of the good olive tree, that is into the goodness of Yahweh.
Rom 11:24 For if you were cut out of the oleaster wild olive tree (agrielaios) by (kata) nature (phusis) and were grafted by (para) nature into a cultivated olive (kallielaios), how much more will these which are the natural be grafted into their own olive tree (elaia)? Yahweh can graft olive tree to olive tree back and forth. When Israelites are rejected and becomes foreign to His kingdom, He can bring them back in.
Rom 11:25 For this reason, brothers, I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, lest you be conceited among yourselves, for hardness (porosis) in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the nations has entered. So once the lost Israelites amongst the tribes (exiled northern house of Israel) that were outside Judaism (house of Judah) came in (had been grafted into Christ), a turning point would have been reached. Fragmented Israel would be brought back together as Jeremiah had prophesied (Jer 31:31) "I will cut a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah."
Rom 11:26 And in this way all Israel shall be protected (sozo/saved), as it is written, "There shall come out of Sion the Rescuer (rhuomai/deliverer), and He will reverse (apostrepho/turn back) wickedness (asebeia) from Jacob. True trusting cleansed Israel would be back together as a pure people as Yahweh had always intended.
Rom 11:27 And this is My contract (diatheke) with them, whenever (hotan/when possibly/wherever) I remove their sins (hamartia.)" Not all from Israel would be protected (saved) from the approaching judgement. Wherever He removed their sins, only these ones would be rescued by the returning Messiah. They would be part of the new contract (covenant) between Yahweh and His people - true redeemed forgiven cleansed Israel made up of all the 12 tribes of Israel gathered from across 'all the nations under heaven' (Acts 2:5), all nations to which Peter preached that day.
Jews in Greece said of Christians, "They have turned the land/world upside down" (Acts 17:6). And thus the point was reached which Jesus spoke of in Math 24:14 "preach to all nations." Thus the fulfilment of the Great Commission had occurred and the end could come in their generation and Jesus return to gather them to the Father. .
Rom 11:28 Concerning the gospel, were enemies among you, but concerning the selection, loved by the Father. Former enemies of the gospel were changed by the love of Yahweh who selected them to receive His grace.
Rom 11:29 Because the grace (charis) and calling of Yahweh are irrevocable. Yahweh's gifts of forgiveness and cleansing and admission into His kingdom cannot be revoked by anyone except Him.
Rom 11:30 Because just as you once disbelieved Yahweh, but now have been shown compassion concerning disbelief, Rom 11:31 even so have these also now disbelieved so that by your compassion they also may be compassionate. Paul alludes in these verse to Hosea 2:23 "I will have compassion on who had not obtained mercy and will say, You are My people."
Rom 11:32 Because Yahweh has shut together all those who disbelieved, so to compassionate (eleeo) all. All the disbelievers, Yahweh put together. Of these ones (in contrast to those who did trust Him), it gave Him opportunity to be compassionate on them all, so that it would be seen that none had earned their right to the kingdom but all were entirely dependent on His grace and selection.
Rom 11:33 O depth of accomplishment (ploutos/fulness) and wisdom (sophia) and knowledge (gnosis) of Yahweh! "How unexplored His decisions (krima)" and His roads (hodos) untracked! Paul echoes Job 5:9 "God (El) does great things, even beyond searching; marvellous things without number.”
Rom 11:34 For "who has known the intellect (nous) of the Lord (kurios), or who became His counselor?" Paul echoes Isa 40:13 "Who has measured the Breath (ruach) of Yahweh or observed His counsellor?"
Rom 11:35 Or "who preceded Him and repaid Him?" Paul echoes Job 41:11 "Who has preceded Me that I should repay?"
Rom 11:36 Because out of Him and through Him and into Him, all to Him glory in this age. Truly. The age of Christ saw the culmination of all Yahweh had initiated, proposed and completed.