Romans and Hebrews, we can say are doctrinal epistles
Romans was written to Gentile Christians and Hebrews was written to Hebrew Christians, who converted from Judaism
In 2 Timothy 3:16 we see the character of the Word of God for doctrine (Romans and Hebrews), reproof (Philippians and 1&2 Corinthians), correction (Galatians and Colossians) and instruction in righteousness (Romans, Ephesians and 1&2 Thessalonians)
In Romans we see the mystery of the cross of Christ
In Ephesians we see the mystery of the Church of Christ
In Thessalonians we see the mystery of the coming of Christ
In Acts the gospel is preached to unsaved people (sinners), and in Romans the gospel is taught to the saints (those who are saved)
Romans has more Old Testament quotations than all the other epistles put together(about 70 quotations from 14 OT books). It demonstrates the fact that the gospel message is the same throughout all ages
The epistle has three main divisions:
1.Chapters 1-8 doctrinal - the righteousness of God revealed in the gospel
2.Chapters 9-11 dispensational- the righteousness of God harmonised with His dispensational ways with Israel
3.Chapters 12-16 practical - the righteousness of God producing practical righteousness in the believer
Chapters 1 - 3:20 we see that all kinds of people are brought into a court and Paul shows that condemnation rests upon all people because all have sinned.
Chapters 3:21 - 5:11 we see God's righteousness and that justification is by grace
Up until chapter 5:11 the epistle is dealing with sins - our naughty acts
From chapter 5:12 the epistle deals with sin - the root cause, or what is the cause of our naughty acts
Chapter 5:12-21 we see two heads and two races, Adam compared with Christ
In chapter 6 we see two masters. Verses 1-14 deals with being dead to sin and verses 15-23 deals with servants of righteousness
In chapter 7:1-6 we see the spiritual man, verses 7-13 we see the natural man and in verses 14-25 we see the carnal man. In the last set of verses we see the exercises of a quickened soul under law who has not yet learned the way of deliverance of a believer from the power of sin, NOT of an unbeliever from his sins. Moreover, an unsaved man cannot say verses 22, 24 and 25 from his heart.
So to link with the previous passage, in chapter 5 we see deliverance of the believer in the aspect of the guilt of sin
In chapter 6 we see deliverance of the believer as to life and in the aspect of the power of sin
In chapter 7 we see deliverance of the believer in regard to the law
In chapter 8 we have the triumph of grace. The Holy Spirit is prominent in the chapter and is mentioned repeatedly. In verses 1-15 the Spirit is considered as life. In verses 16-27 He is dwelling in the Christian (God in us).
In verses 28-39 we see our blessed assurance. In verses 28-34 God is for us and in verses 35-39 there is no separation.
At the start of chapter 8 there is no condemnation for the believer, and at the end of the chapter there is no separation from the love of God for the believer.
In chapter 9 we see God's past dealings with the nation of Israel
In chapter 10 we see God's present dealings with the nation of Israel
In chapter 11 we see God's promise and future dealings with the nation of Israel
Chapters 12-16 bring before us our Christian responsibilities.
Chapter 12 responsibilities toward God verses 1-2 and toward man in the rest of the chapter. Verse 1 our responsibility to God is outside of the system of religious ceremonies, speaking of bodies. Verse 2 it is outside of the world, speaking of the mind.
Chapter 13 responsibilities toward authorities - rendering to Caesar the things that are Caesar's. Also we have responsibilities toward our neighbours.
Chapter 14 - 15:7 responsibilities toward the weaker brethren
Chapter 15:7 to end of chapter - Christian liberty
Chapter 16 the local assembly and characteristics and loving works of the believers mentioned.