About 1000BC Indo-Europeans came from central Europe to settle down in Italy as the Italian peninsula had fertile soil causing attraction of the outsiders. Rome was founded in 753BC by Romulus, son of war god Mars. History speaks that up to 510BC seven rulers ruled over Rome and the last ruler was driven out when the Rome became a Republic country. City state of Rome came into being by merger of seven villages during 700BC. The Etruscans were commercial people and much civilized entered to Italy and begun to establish their superiority and in 509 BC the Romans were in a position to get rid of them. The period of Roman Republic was from 509 to 31BC. The Etruscans might have created much more problems for the Romans, which is the cause of regular struggle by the people of Rome from the very beginning. The Roman checked Etruscans from creating problems .After withdrawal of the invaders Roman were in a position to re-build Rome and established their supremacy.
The socio-political life of the Roman people is that they were dived into two classes namely patricians (nobles) and plebeians (common people).The law of debt was in operation and such laws enslaved lot of plebeians for non-payment of debts. The patricians were not in a mood to share there power and authority with plebeians. The senate was the most powerful institution, which usually belonged to the nobles (patricians).The senate controlled public finance, advised on the matter of administration and military commands to the generals and selected Chief Judicial Officers(praetors) and dealt with foreign affairs. Though a Assembly was there with membership of both noble and common people, but the senate was controlling the assembly. The family was the lowest unit of the social setup. When the patricians crossed their limit by doing repeated injustice to common people, the plebeians agitated, expressed their suppressed discontentment and action of struggle originated for modification of laws became success in their mission due to their strong ness. In 366BC the first plebeians Consul was appointed and in 300BC a decision was taken to hold a Censor office by the common people (plebeians). There were three wars which lasted about (100) hundred years known as Punic wars. During 100BC Julius Caesar was born in a noble family having charming personality and became popular with the masses with a result that he was selected as consul. In 58BC, he was appointed as military governor of Gaul and expanded Roman Empire. He became popular due to his conquests which dissatisfied the Pompey Group of Senate. The said group could not face him and left the country and Julius Cesar became more powerful, controlled over senate, conquered Spain and Egypt, crushed revolt in Syria and North Africa and came to Rome in 45BC. Julius was so popular that the people accepted him as their dictator. In 44BC two senators namely Brutus and Cassius killed Julius in the Senate. Though Julius had nominated his adopted son as his successor, but some of the senators organized themselves under Cicero, who was murdered by his commander, Mark Antony. Antony was defeated by strong army under the leadership of supreme commander Octavian in 31BC and Augustus Octavian became very popular in Rome and in 21 BC he was declared as the head of senate. Augustus remained in powers for 40 years and died in 14AD. Then come Tiberius (step son of Augustus), Caligula, Claudius, Julian. History also speak that when Rome was burning, Julian was enjoying scene. Even he did not hesitate to enjoy by putting the people, nailed Christians to crosses and ordered Rome to be burnt down. After Julian Emperors, Flavian Emperors came to powers. They were Trojan, Hadrian, Antonious, Pins and Marcus Aurelius. Roman civilization was quite well progressed and prospered in the ancient past, remarkable contribution in the field of art and literature, loved education,, made very useful contribution towards administration, contributed in the field of philosophy, and architecture, in the field of sculpture, painting and drama etc. Even one example may be cite3d here that Coliseum in Rome was so big that as many as 50,000(fifty thousand people could be accommodated in that building. Had Romans not decided to leave a comfortable and luxurious life, they would have been in a position to save the empire from disintegration and downfall.
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