JOSEPH PLAGIARIZES FROM THE MASONIC LEGEND OF ENOCH TO USE IN THE BOOK OF MORMON*
Masonry also played a significant role in the Book of Mormon story. As Smith learned more about Masonic beliefs, he began to weave them into his buried treasure tale. (Although Joseph Smith was not inducted into the Masonic Lodge until March 15, 1842, after his Book of Mormon story, his knowledge of Masonic lore was probably acquired earlier from his brother Hyrum who was a Mason. Books were also in print containing Masonic stories.)
He particularly borrowed heavily from a Masonic myth called the Legend of Enoch.(54) To those familiar with Mormon history, the parallels are self-evident(55)
Enoch's legend describes God giving a secret doctrine to Adam in a dream. Adam is shown, in this dream, a gold plate engraved with unknown characters. Among these characters is the Tetragrammaton, the holy name of God.
Based upon what he saw in his dream, Adam makes a similar plate of gold and copies the sacred characters on to it. He hands it down to his son, Seth, who guards it carefully and also passes it on. Finally, it reaches Enoch.(56)
Enoch, then receives a vision of the future. He foresees a world-destroying flood and is shown that the holy treasure will eventually be kept in a secret cavern inside Mount Moriah.
He then proceeds to build an underground cavern to preserve the treasure from the eventual flood. Placing a stone door over the cavern, he erects two pillars, one of marble the other, brass. Upon the marble pillar he engraves the story of the treasure and the history of the Tower of Babel in Egyptian hieroglyphics.
On the second pillar of brass, he engraves the history of creation and the principles of Masonry. Upon the top of the brass pillar he places a metal ball which miraculously solves problems and gives direction. The legend concludes by stating that the treasure will be found by one of Enoch's Israelitish descendants.
Now, jumping from Enoch to the future King Solomon--after the flood--Solomon's masons, while building the King's temple on the hill Moriah, come across pieces of the treasure, although not yet the gold plate. They turn their findings over to the King. Solomon then places the treasure in a secret underground vault beneath the temple, just as Enoch saw in his vision. Solomon instructs the three men to go back to the ruins and see if they can find more of the treasure.
Upon doing so, they come across the stone covering Enoch's cave. After three attempts to descend into the cave, they finally obtain the gold plate, noticing that "the brilliancy of the plate and jewels are of themselves sufficient to give light to the cavern."(57)
Delivering the gold plate to King Solomon, he places it in his underground vault along with the breastplate of the High Priest of Israel and the Urim and Thummin. Solomon then changes the status of the vault from "secret" to "sacred" and allows only a few to see the plate.
The following summarizes the comparisons between the Masonic Legend of Enoch and Joseph Smith's story:
1. Enoch is shown the hill Moriah in a vision. .
2. Joseph Smith shown the hill Cumorah in a vision
1. Enoch is shown a hidden treasure.
2. Joseph Smith is shown the gold plates.
1. Enoch's treasure includes a gold plate with engravings.
2. Smith's gold plates are engraved.
1. Enoch's marble pillar is carved with Egyptian hieroglyphics.
2. Smith's plates are engraved in reformed Egyptian
1. Enoch's marble pillar tells the story of the treasure.
2. Smith's Book of Mormon tells story of the gold plates.
1. Enoch erects a brass pillar which tells the history of creation.
2. The Book of Mormon includes brass plates containing the five books of Moses.(58)
1. Enoch writes the history of the Tower of Babel on the marble pillar.
2. The Book of Mormon contains the Book of Ether, a history of a migration from the Tower of Babel.
1. Enoch's brass pillar has a metal ball on top which has the power to direct.
2. The Book of Mormon tells of a brass ball, the Liahona, which acts as a compass.
1. Enoch foresees a world-destroying flood.
2. Joseph Smith receives a revelation of the Book of Moses, giving an account of Enoch foreseeing a world-destroying flood.(59)
1. Enoch predicts that after the flood, an Israelitish descendant will find the treasure.
2. The Book of Mormon foretells an Israelitish descendant having the same name as Joseph of Egypt, who will find the treasure. Joseph claims to be the predicted descendant, even going so far as to give himself the code name of "Enoch" in his revelations. (60)
1. Three masons obtain the treasure after three attempts.
2. Smith tries to take the plates and is only successful after three attempts.
1. Three masons are witnesses to the treasure.
2. Smith arranges for three witnesses to the plates: Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer.
1. Solomon's treasure contained the gold plate, a brass pillar and record, the High Priest's breastplate, the Urim and Thummin and a metal ball. It also contained the Tetragrammaton, the name of God.
2. Smith's treasure consisted of the brass plates, gold plates, the Urim and Thummin, the High Priest's breastplate, and a metal ball called the "Liahona". The plates claimed to be from God.
1. The three masons note that the gold plate gives off enough light to illuminate the cavern.
2. Smith claims the Book of Mormon plates light up the cavern in the hill Cumorah.
1. Enoch's treasure is first hidden in his own cavern, and then later transferred to the hill Moriah. .
2. The Book of Mormon story states that the plates were first kept in a hill called Shim, then transferred to the hill Cumorah.
1. King Solomon allows only a few to see the treasure.
2. Smith allows only a few to see the plates.
1. Enoch's cavern is covered by a large stone with an iron ring.
2, Smith earlier claimed the plates were in an iron box, but later said it was stone.
1. Enoch is called by God to preserve the knowledge of the treasure.
2. Smith is called by God to preserve the knowledge of the plates.
1. King Solomon changes the status of his underground cavern from secret to sacred.
2. The Mormon temple ceremony is declared not to be secret, but sacred.
JOSEPH'S MOTIVE IN PRODUCING THE BOOK OF MORMON
Was Smith's only objective in producing the Book of Mormon, to promote the Masonic Legend of Enoch? No. There were three other contributing motives.
The first . . . Smith simply loved to con people and took advantage of his imaginative powers. His mother tells how Smith would often entertain the family for hours relating stories of how the ancient Americans dressed and acted, about their cities, warfare and religion long before he came up with the idea of writing the Book of Mormon.(61)
His enjoyment at fooling people was well known, and reported in affidavits by Smith's contemporaries. For example, after a rain shower, Smith discovered some white sand. He "tied up several quarts of it [in his 'frock'] and then went home." His family was eager to know what he had. Smith later told Peter Ingersol:
"At that moment I happened to think about a history found in Canada, called the Golden Bible; so I very gravely told them it was the Golden Bible. To my surprise they were credulous enough to believe what I said."(62)
The second motive? He wanted to answer the big question of the day--are the Indians transplanted Israelites?
This was a hot topic. As early as 1634, Joseph Mede was questioning the origin of the Indians. By 1650 writer Thomas Thorowgood decided they were the Lost Tribes of Israel. In 1775 and 1816 Elias Boudinot and James Adair brought the idea to the forefront again.(63) Newspapers in Smith's locale also speculated on the origin of the Indians.
Then, in 1823, Ethan Smith wrote, View of the Hebrews, in an attempt to explain the absence of a recorded history for the American Indians. Although Smith borrowed much from Ethan Smith's book, his idea for the Book of Mormon in the first place, was probably triggered by a magician named Walters:
"[Walters] had an old copy of Cicero's Orations, in the Latin language, out of which he read [in] an unintelligible jargon, which he would afterwards pretend to interpret, and explain, as a record of the former inhabitants of America, and a particular account of the numerous situations where they deposited their treasures previous to their final [destruction]."(64)
Joseph, spurred on by public interest in the subject and influenced by both Walters and Ethan Smith's book, hit on the idea that he would be the one to provide the recorded history.
But, this required some ingenuity. If his story was going to cover Lamanite settlements in South America and Nephites in Central America, how was he going to get their sacred records to the state of New York, three thousand miles away, for him to find fifteen hundred years later? Obviously, he had to invent a character who would carry them there.
But, common sense asks why the character Mormon, or his son Moroni, would travel three thousand miles on foot when they could have buried the plates closer to home? In addition, how could they have transported as many heavy gold plates as Smith describes?
The third motive? The Book of Mormon provided Smith with an outlet for his fascination with Masonic mysteries.
However, it gradually grew to be more than just fascination. Smith admits, in a letter to John Hull, that what he really wanted was to produce a truer and higher level of Masonry.(65) Not just for the United States, but world-wide.(66) Intrigued with this concept, he began using Masonic vocabulary in his sermons, such as the "nail in a sure place," later to become part of the temple ceremony. He also interjected the motifs of the sun, moon, planets and stars. (These motifs, however, didn't originate with Masonry. They were a blend of Rosicrucian, Alchemic, Kabbalistic and Hermetic symbols of which the sun and moon were part.)(67)
JOSEPH'S USE OF MASONIC EMBLEMS
In the temple in Salt Lake City, and large conference rooms were fashioned like Masonic Lodges and temples, and Masonic emblems were used extensively.(68) This was because Smith believed "the whole earth was compared symbolically to a Grand Masonic Lodge, the counterpart of which was the Grand Lodge in the eternal regions of Glory."(69)
The temple displays the Masonic All-seeing Eye, used by many ancient religions. Occult literature reveals it as the Diva, or the Cyclopean Eye, the ancient third eye of spiritual insight used by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks and other pagan religions. Later, it was adopted by Hermetic philosophers as "the sacred emblem of a perpetual divine and uncreated intelligence."(70) In the Christian context, it was changed to mean the eye of Jehovah. Mormons, today, claim the latter.(71)
On the temple walls one can also see the Masonic phrase, "Holiness to the Lord," as well as the compass and clasped hands.(72) Even the weathervane of the Nauvoo temple, with its small angel, exhibited the square and compass.(73)
The Beehive emblem was also utilized later as a symbol for the Mormon State by Brigham Young. This emblem, used in earlier centuries by Christian Hermetics, later entered Freemasonry.
Contrary to what many assume, the beehive did not represent physical industry. Metaphorically, it represented one's inner soul, with the industry of the bee illustrative of the spiritual labor required for the alchemic transmutation of the individual, or dark matter, into gold.(74) This is the basis for the Mormon belief that one may be transformed into a god. Herman R. Bangerter explains that if one is worthy of wearing the symbol of the square and compass on his or her garments,
"and continues faithfully in the service of the Master, he will receive the spiritual light, which will enable him or her to unite the physical and the spiritual, and through the process of Divine Alchemy, change the mortal corruptible body into a Celestial Body and thereby have eternal life."(75)
In the St. George, Utah Tabernacle (not the temple), there still remains, on a mock fireplace, a round circle resting on the horizontal arm of a cross. Occult writer Madame Blavatsky explains in her Secret Doctrine, that this is the "Venus' looking-glass," a symbol of human procreation and also the "sacred cross of Egypt" as carried in the hands of the gods, the Pharaohs and the mummified dead.(76)
In the temple ceremony itself,(77) there is the apron, special handshakes,(78) oaths and penalties, the five points of fellowship,(79) special garments with markings of the square and compass, and giving of a new name--all taken from Masonry.(80)
Probably the most astounding admission by a Mormon scholar on Joseph's plagiarism of Masonry, was Dr. Reed Durham, Jr.:
"The Mormon ceremony which came to be known as the Endowment, introduced by Joseph Smith to Mormon Masons, had an immediate inspiration from Masonry. This is not to suggest that no other source of inspiration could have been involved, but the similarities between the two ceremonies are so apparent and overwhelming that some dependent relationship cannot be denied. They are so similar, in fact, that one writer was led to refer to the Endowment as Celestial Masonry."(81)
While members of the Mormon Church believe every jot and tittle of Mormonism, especially the temple ceremony, was received by revelation, one is reminded of Dr. Durham's admission about the similarities to Masonry, "To explain them only as coincidence," he says, "would be ridiculous."(82)
JOSEPH'S USE OF "CLANGS"
To purposely disguise any Masonic connection to his new religion, Smith used clangs--word-inventions intended to mask words.
For example, according to the Tanners, it is believed he incorporated "the first three letters of Moriah (M-O-Riah) . . . and the last three letters of Solomon (SoloM-O-N)",(83) to come up with Mor-mon, which is both the name of his sacred book and the name of its main character.(84)
Another clang is Mahonri Moriancumer, the name of a character in the Book of Ether. According to Dr. Durham, the last name, Moriancumer, could easily be "a compound of 'Moriah,' the sacred hill where Solomon stored Enoch's treasure--and 'Cumorah,' the sacred hill where the new Enoch [Smith] found his treasure plates."(85)
Moriancumer's first name, Mahonri, according to Walter F. Prince, is "clang" for Masonry.(86) This is achieved by replacing the s in Masonry with an h and changing the y to i. Therefore, Mahonri Moriancumer, "divested of 'clang' is Masonry Moriah Cumorah."(87)
JOSEPH'S DESIRE FOR OCCULT REVELATION AND SECRET CEREMONIES
The reason Joseph was so attracted to Masonry, was because he believed the Masonic ceremony contained rituals and doctrines practiced by the ancient Eleusinians and the Greek mystery religions. He was convinced they contained secrets handed down from Adam.(88) Dr. Durham acknowledged this by saying that Joseph Smith accepted Masonry because "he recognized true Ancient Mysteries contained therein."(89)
Smith, however, chose not to stick with the Masonic Lodge, but start his own. Why?
He became convinced that Masonic teachings, handed down from the Hermetic Magi, Babylon, Chaldea, Egypt and the Kabbalah, had been distorted over time. He felt that further back, there was an original truth, a purer Masonry. Joseph's objective was to get to the very root of things and have a religion he could claim contained the most primordial doctrines--ones that originated as close to the beginning of time as possible.
Dr. Durham further confirmed this by saying that Smith "believed he was restoring Masonry's original pristine brilliancy, and re-creating the original Mysteries of the ancient Priesthood."(90) Smith also incorporated ideas from the ancient Eleusinian mysteries gleaned from the Encyclopaedia Britannia and other available sources in 1837.(91)
What other aspect of the shrouded teachings and doctrines of these cultic mysteries, fascinated Joseph? They could only be passed on to those made worthy through ritualistic ceremonies.
These ancient rituals included washings and anointings, oaths and penalties, a new name, special garments, covenants of chastity, achieving godhood and special passwords to enable one to pass by the sentries who guard the gates of heaven.
Most of these ancient ceremonies were taken up with initiates watching live actors in a drama--not much different from today's temple ceremony. (Temple participants today, view most of the drama by watching actors in a movie.)
The idea of the temple drama was originally used in the Rosicrucian order, then incorporated into French Masonry in 1750. Known as allegorical "mystery plays", they taught rituals which were "fundamentally Hermetic-Kabbalistic".(92) Of further interest is the 28th Degree of the Scottish rite, also known as "the Rite de Perfection," which was "administered in a room painted like a vast garden, with open fields, forests, and mountains."(93) Similar murals adorn Mormon temple walls.
In a way, Smith's desire to find God's original revelation, was a noble endeavor. However, the deceit of the whole matter was that the ideas gleaned from the ancient mystery cults, including the Kaballah, he passed off as revelation from the Holy Ghost:
"Now, I ask all who hear me, why the learned men who are preaching salvation, say that God created the heavens and the earth out of nothing? The reason is, that they are unlearned in the things of God, and have not the gift of the Holy Ghost . . . But I am learned, and know more than all the world put together. The Holy Ghost does, anyhow, and he is within me, and comprehends more than all the world; and I will associate myself with him."(94)
Joseph was very taken up with the Jewish Kaballah (the mystical, esoteric tradition of Judaism, claiming the original knowledge Adam received from God). His diary admits that he studied with a Jewish convert, Alexander Neibauer who had an extensive library on the Kabbalah.(95) ("Freemasonry adopted portions of the Kabbalah into its third degree, the Royal Arch, and into some of the higher grades.")96)
Faithful members believed his new insights were revealed from God. A year after his study with Neibauer, at the funeral of a man named King Follett, he began teaching some of these complex insights, gleaned from the Kaballah and other sources, his more famous one being the following:
"[In the beginning] the head God called together the Gods and sat in grand council to bring forth the world . . . The mind or the intelligence which man possesses is [co-eternal] with God himself . . . God . . . is an exalted man . . . we have got to learn how to be gods . . . the same as all gods have done before."(97)
Also influenced by the Kabbalistic concept that sacred revelation was progressive and open-ended, he felt he could receive a higher and more advanced revelation of God, and he thus began to receive his own revelations.(98)
Many argue that Joseph Smith was uneducated, a statement promoted by Mormon leaders.
But, he was no dummy. He may have been illiterate in the beginning, but he became an avid learner while Neibaur tutored him. Smith had Latin, Hebrew, German and Greek New Testaments. Whether he could read them all is debatable; however, LDS history says he could read the German New Testament.(99)
A LOOK AT THE MODERN LDS CHURCH
Today's Mormons argue that while all this may be true about Joseph Smith, the Church today no longer believes all that "superstitious stuff" "They have high morals, excellent ethics and standards, etc."
But, there is something missing in this presumption. Mormonism's foundation rests upon a man which God, in Deuteronomy 18:9-14, warns about:
"Let no one be found among you . . . who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft, or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead. Anyone who does these things is detestable to the Lord."
Further, two Presidents of the Mormon Church said, "Joseph Smith is the foundation of this church," and "Mormonism . . . must stand or fall on the story of Joseph Smith," If so, it is, therefore, important to examine the life and claims of Joseph Smith closely.(100) If he, as the foundation of their church, is proved false, then all the doctrines of Mormonism must also be false.
Some may continue to argue, "At least Mormons believe in Christ!"
But, even the most radical cults preach Christ. Mormonism, typical of other cults, teaches that faith in Jesus and what he did on the cross is not "enough" for salvation. Brigham Young taught that full salvation (exaltation in the highest heaven) can only come through acceptance of and final say-so of Joseph Smith, not through the grace of Christ:
"No man or woman in this dispensation will ever enter into the celestial kingdom of God without the consent of Joseph Smith. Every man and woman must have the certification of Joseph Smith, Junior, as a passport to their entrance into the mansion where God and Christ are."(101)
"[There is] no salvation without accepting Joseph Smith. If we get our salvation, we shall have to pass by him [Joseph Smith] . . . we cannot get around him."(102)
Even non-Mormons might be tempted to say, "Well, let's not hold Joseph Smith against the Mormon Church--look how far they've come! They no longer believe in divining rods or peep stones, and present day leaders certainly don't engage in occult practices like animal sacrifice and magic circles."
But the issue is not that they don't practice them anymore. The issue is: that is what their church was built upon!
A true church must line up with all of God's Word. Can we imagine God allowing his Old Testament prophets to indulge in magic and occult activities? In this respect, Smith's reputation was so bad that he was refused membership in the Methodist Church.
When Joseph Smith asked to join the Methodist church the preacher, unaware of his occult activities, put his name on the rolls.(103) Eventually, however, a board member, Joseph Lewis, heard about it and objected. He said, "Joseph's manner of life rendered him unfit to be a member." Smith was asked to withdraw unless he wanted to recant, confess, and reform himself. Smith refused.(104) Later, in the Amboy paper, Lewis, along with a local preacher, Joshua McKune, explained:
"We thought it was a disgrace to the church to have a practicing necromancer, a dealer in enchantments and bleeding ghosts . . . his occupation, habits and moral character were at variance with the discipline [and] his name would be a disgrace to the church."(105)
Therefore, it makes no difference whether Mormons have high ethics or profess a belief in Christ. If the foundation is not built upon Jesus Christ as the chief cornerstone, it's false.
Often it is asked: "Why don't Mormon leaders wipe the slate clean and tell the truth to their members about Joseph Smith? Why don't they gradually get rid of unbiblical beliefs and build their church around their high ethics and a Biblical belief in Jesus?"
But, Mormon leaders find themselves between a rock and a hard place. Knowing, as they do, the facts about Joseph Smith, they realize that if they admit to them, they chance destroying the faith of their members. Therefore, out of necessity they have to continue white-washing the image of Joseph Smith and extolling the divine foundation of the church.
As a result, Mormons continue to be deceived, along with many unsuspecting converts, who are not told certain Mormon doctrines up front, but led to believe they are joining another Christian church.(106)
One must not be gullible but discerning, like the Bereans in Acts 17 who were praised by Paul because they tested everything he said by the Scriptures.
First Thessalonians 5:21says one must prove all things and hold fast to that which is good. Is the following good?
1. Joseph was involved in the use of peep stones, divining rods, witchcraft, astrology, blood sacrifices, necromancy, and magic circles.
2. Joseph continued to rely upon these methods when he started his church, incorporating them into his temple ceremony along with rituals from ancient mystery religions.
3. Everything Smith introduced into his new church, he passed off as divine revelation and requirements for salvation.
4. To translate the Book of Mormon and Book of Abraham, he used the same peep stones used as a money-digger and palm reader.
5. Many of the events pertaining to the Book of Mormon, were taken from the Masonic Legend of Enoch.
6. Joseph Smith told conflicting stories on how he found the plates:
a. He found them through a brown seer stone (according to Brigham Young and Martin Harris).
b. Joseph claimed he received them from a Spanish ghost.
c. Joseph claimed he received them through a dream
d. Joseph claimed they were received from a nameless angel.
e. Then, through an angel named Nephi.
f. Lastly, through an angel named Moroni.
(1) The thirteen million figure is from the National Council of Churches' publication, 2007 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, (www.ncccusa.org) where it also lists the LDS church as the fourth-largest religion in the United States. LDS membership, as of 2006, is 12,560,869. The 2006 count of the net increase of members' "children of record" who were baptized was more than 94,000. The count for "convert baptisms" for 2006 was 272,800. This figure probably includes the 94,000.
(2) According to Mormon scholars, Steven C. Walker and Richard Van Wagoner, the first 116 pages of the Book of Mormon claimed to have been translated by switching between the Urim and Thummin and the peep stone. Walker ("Joseph Smith, 'the Gift of Seeing'" Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Summer 1982, p. 53.) See Jerald and Sandra Tanner, Mormonism, Magic and Masonry (Salt Lake City: Lighthouse Ministries, 1983), 27. [Hereinafter, Magic.] Smith's mother described the Urim and Thummin as consisting "of two smooth three-cornered diamonds set in glass, and the glasses were set in silver bows, which were connected with each other in much the same way as old fashioned spectacles." (Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith the Prophet and His Progenitors For Many Generations [Liverpool: S.W. Richards, 1853],101. Cited in Tanner, Magic.)
(3) An Address to All Believers in Christ, by David Whitmer (Self-published, Richmond, MO: 18878; reprint 1938) 12. Cited in Tanners, Magic, 26. When Smith translated the plates they were, at the time, in a location elsewhere--hidden in the woods. (See David Persuitte, Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon (N.C., McFarland & Co. 1985), 73. Therefore, he did not literally translate the plates, but divined their message, supernaturally.
(4) Wesley P. Walters, "From Occult to Cult with Joseph Smith, Jr." Cited in Tanner, Magic, 20. (Italics, mine.) Tanners note that Lucy Smith's statement appears on page 77 of the preliminary draft of her history which is located in the Historical Department of the LDS Church.
(5) Mormon Answers to Skepticism (author unknown) Webster's Grove, Missouri, 1980, p. 105. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 20-21. According to an article by John E. Thompson entitled, "The Facultie of Abrac," the faculty of Abrac dated to the 17th century and was known in Smith's time and neighborhood.
(5-a) Acrostics were used by the Hebrews to aid in memorization. "Hebrew poem[s] of which the initial letters of the lines or stanzas formed the alphabet in order. Twelve of the Psalms are of this character, of which Psalm cxix. is the best example." (Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary. Deluxe second edition (Dorset & Baber, 1979), 19.
(6) Robert Hendrickson, Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins (Fact on File Pub., 1987) 2-3.
(7) Historical Magazine, May 1870, 306. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 18.
(8) B.H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church, 6 vols (1930; reprint, Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1965) 1:26-27. (Italics mine.) Cited in Tanner, Magic, 18.
(9) Eber D. Howe, Mormonism Unvailed (Painesville, Ohio, n.p., 1834), 249. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 26.
(10) Naked Truths About Mormonism, January 1888, cited in Mormon Answer to Skepticism, p. 104. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 27.
(11) One may wonder if Smith really had any gold plates. They couldn't possibly have been gold. With the measurements being 7" x 8" x6" and gold weighing 1.5 pounds per cubic inch, if solid they would have weighed nearly 200 pounds. Even allowing that they weren't solid and deducting some of the weight to allow for spaces between sheets and the hollowed-out engravings, it isn't possible. There is no way Joseph, according to his mother's story, could have tucked them beneath one arm, walked home, jumped over a log and run a mile from would-be attackers. See "Non-gold plates," The Evangel, November 1994, p. 6. See also, "Joseph Smith's Gold Plates," Utah Christian Tract Society, p. 5. This tract cites Joseph Smith's History By His Mother, 104-105.
(12) See D. Michael Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power (Salt Lake City, in asociation with Smith Research Associates: Signature Books, 1994), 4.
(13) Historical Magazine, May 1870, p. 306. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 26.
(14) C.M. Stafford claimed that Joseph Smith studied the palm of his hand and told his fortune. (Naked Truths About Mormonism, April 1888.) Cited in Tanner, Magic, 26. See also p. 18.
(15) A Patriarchal blessing is pronounced by an authorized Patriarch. His job is to declare which tribe one descends from and often tells the individual's future.
(16) Joel Tiffany, "Mormonism-No. II," Tiffany's Monthly 5 (August 1859): 163-170, quoted in H. Michael Marquardt and Wesley P. Walters, Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record (N.p., Smith Research Associates, 1994), 205-
206. See also Tanner, Magic, 25. This (brown) stone was found in the well at a depth of "twenty or twenty-two feet." (Historical Magazine, May 1870, p. 306.)
(17) See Quinn, Mormon Hierarchy, pp. 616-623.
(18) James Collin Brewster, Very Important! To the Mormon Money Diggers. Why do the Mormons rage and the people imagine a vain thing? (March 20, 1843, Springfield, IL.) Cited in Tanner, Magic, 19.
(19) See Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy, p. 645.
(20) This revelation appeared in the 1833 Book of Commandments, predecessor to the Doctrine & Covenants.
(21) Book of Commandments 7:3. (Italic, mine.) Cited in Tanner, Magic, 29. See actual photograph of the original revelation contained in the Book of Commandments, in Jerald and Sandra Tanner's Mormonism-Shadow or Reality? (Salt Lake City: Modern Microfilm, 1972), 19. Presently, Doctrine & Covenants 8:6 reads "gift of Aaron".
(22) The Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences, 322. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 29. Calling a divining rod as a Rod of Aaron can also be verified in The Divining Rod, published in 1894, p. 1.
(23) This instance was related by William Stafford, contemporary of Smith's. The procedure of using a sword is found in the magic book, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 26. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 32. See also, Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, 237-239. Cited in Tanner Magic, 31.
(24) Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, 237-239. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 32.
(25) The Greater Key of Solomon, 122. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 33.
(26) See Tanner, Magic, 32-33.
(27) Mormonism: or Life Among the Mormons, 1882, as cited by Wesley P. Walters in Joseph Smith's Bainbridge, N.Y., Court Trials, Part 2, p. 125. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 34.
(28) Richard L. Anderson, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1970, p. 294.
(29) Naked Truths About Mormonism, Jan. 1888, p. 3, as cited in Anderson's article (previous footnote). See also Tanner, Magic, 33.
(30) Wandle Mace records this event in his journal: "Joseph told them to go to Kirtland, and cleanse and purify a certain room in the Temple, that they must kill a lamb and offer a sacrifice unto the Lord which should prepare them to ordain Willard Richards a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles." (Journal of Wandle Mace, p. 32, microfilmed copy at Brigham Young University.) See also Tanner, Magic, 34.
(31) Joseph Fielding Smith, comp. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City, Deseret Book, 1977), 172-73. Joseph Smith's preoccupation with animal sacrifice relates to his belief in sacrificing sheep to appease evil spirits who guarded buried treasure. For a living, Smith used a divining rod and seer stones to find buried treasure. He also made the statement that killing a lamb in the Temple was necessary to validate the ordination of Willard Richards as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. This subject is discussed further in Chapter 7.
(32) One phrase was in Latin.
(33) Dr. Durham was chastised by Mormon leaders after he revealed the Masonic and magic connection of Joseph Smith and was made to sign a "test oath," a statement swearing allegiance to the divine mission of Joseph Smith.
(34) The Magus, by Francis Barrett. Printed in England in 1801, published in American in 1804, it was available in Smith's time. Dr. Durham traced it to Manchester and to New York. See also Tanner Magic, 2.
(35) See Mervin B. Hogan, ed.,Mormon Miscellaneous (Nauvoo: New Nauvoo Neighborhood Press, 1, no. 1 , Oct. 1975),15. The Masonic Order also endorsed the magic Table of Jupiter.
(36) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct. 1975, 14-15. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 2.
(37) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 1975, 14-15. See also Tanner, Magic, 2-3.
(38) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 1:1, Oct. 1975, 14-15.
(39) Ibid. For a picture of the talisman, see Tanner, Magic, 3.
(40) Michael W. Homer, "Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry," 27, no. 3 Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought (Fall 1994): 24.
(41) Pearson H. Corbett, Hyrum Smith-Patriarch (Provo: Deseret Book, 1963), 453. describes these objects. See Tanner, Magic, 5ff.
(42) Reginald Scot, The Discovery of Witchcraft. First printed in 1584, photographically reprinted in 1971. See Tanner, Magic, 12. (The Tanners' book also contains pictures.)
(43) Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Summer 1982, p. 66. Joseph Smith's divining rod was given to Oliver Cowdery's brother-in-law, Phineas Young. Young was also brother to Brigham Young and gave it to the latter.
(44) See Quinn, The Mormon Hierarchy, 659. Also, Anthon H. Lund Journal for July 5, 1901. Also cited in Tanner, Magic, 30.
(45) See Brigham Young University Studies, Fall 1978, p. 82, in article by D. Michael Quinn. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 30.
(46) See Quinn, Mormon Hierarchy, 649.
(47) Joseph Smith's use of the term "apostate endowment" meant that the Masons originally had the true temple ceremony but, through time, it degenerated and many truths were lost.
(48) The Masonic Emblems & Parchments of Joseph & Hyrum Smith," compiled by Arturo de Hoyos, 1982, pp. 1-2. (Italics, mine.) See also Tanner, Magic, 17.
(49) Witnesses say he used a stone to locate the box. Smith, upon looking into his stone, may have interpreted the psychic vision as a dream, making it sound more Biblical.
(50) The sequence of events is reminiscent of the Masonic Legend of Enoch.
(51) Article published in the Amboy Journal, April 30, 1879, by Joseph and Hiel Lewis. (Parenthetical phrases are part of the quote.) See also Tanner, Magic, 41.
(52) Historical Magazine, May 1870, pp. 306-307. See also Tanner, Magic, 40.
(53) The name of "Nephi" as the angel, appeared in the following publications: The 1851 edition of the Pearl of Great Price; Millennial Star, Lucy Mack Smith's biography on Joseph Smith; and Times and Seasons, dated April 15, 1842, 3:753. Joseph Smith was editor of the Times and Seasons at the time the account of his story was published. The full quote of the angel appearing in Smith's room, can be found in Bill McKeever's Answering Mormons' Questions (Minneapolis, Bethany House, 1991), 96-97. For a more detailed account of the angel's name-change, see Tanner's Mormonism-Shadow or Reality?, 136-137, 1972 edition. It has also been suggested that Smith could have been influenced by a story contained in Draper's Intellectual Development of Europe, p. 382 which reads: "About the close of the twelfth century appeared among the mendicant friars that ominous work, which, under the title of 'The Everlasting Gospel,' struck terror into the Latin hierarchy. It was affirmed that an angel had brought it from heaven, engraven on copper plates, and had given it to a priest named Cyril, who delivered it to the Abbot Joachim." Cited in James H. Snowden's The Truth About Mormonism (New York, George H. Doran Co., 1926), 108.
(54) Derived from Kabbalistic lore.
(55) According to Dr. Reed Durham, Jr., the Legend of Enoch was refined and incorporated into modern Masonry in France 1740-1760. By 1802, American Masonry had it in print and by Smith's time was available in bookstores. See Tanner, Magic, 47. See also, Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 15. This legend given in the 13th, 14th and 21st degree of Masonry.
(56) Homer, "Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry," 17.
(57) The Freemason's Monitor or Illustrations of Masonry by Thomas S. Webb (New York, Southwick and Crooker, 1802), 256.
(58) The Book of Mormon index says: "contain[s] five books of Moses, history of Jews to reign of Zedekiah, genealogy. See Plates, Brass."
(59) See Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses 7:32-38.
(60) See Doctrine & Covenants, sections 78, 92, 96, and 104.
(61) Wesley P. Walters, The Human Origins of the Book of Mormon (Ex-Mormons for Jesus, Clearwater, FL), 24.
(62) Palmyra Reflector, February 28, 1831. See also James H. Snowden, The Truth About Mormonism, 57, citing an affidavit given in Mormonism Unveiled by Howe, 235-36.
(63) Elias Boudinot and James Adair, A Star in the West, or an Attempt to Discover the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.
(64) Palmyra Reflector, Feb. 28, 1831, as cited in Tanner, Magic, 2.
(65) A Mormon writer, Lance S. Owens, in an article for Dialogue "Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection", p. 171, claims the letter is a forgery.
(66) A letter of Joseph Smith to Mr. John Hull of Lempster, New Hampshire, as cited in Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, p. 13. According to Reed C. Durham, Jr., Joseph makes it "clear in the letter that the Kingdom of God was thought to be the true masonry which, when ultimately established with a king and a president, would abolish all earthly confusion and evil and usher in the Millennium. The whole earth was compared symbolically to a Grand Masonic Lodge, the counterpart of which was the Grand Lodge in the eternal regions of Glory." After a lengthy description of Masonic related descriptions, Joseph concludes, "This is my present survey of Masonry in this world."
(67) In Hermetic books of Christian philosophers during the 17th century, the idea of opposites seeking union was conveyed by the symbols of sun and moon. The sacred wedding of King and Queen Rex and Regina picture them with the sun and moon.
(68) A typical Masonic Lodge is a room in the shape of a rectangle, having an altar in the center. At the east end, the Worshipful Master sits on a platform. The Senior Warden sits on the west, the Junior Warden on the south. Similarities can be seen in pictures of the Mormon temple assembly rooms.
(69) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 13.
(70) Lance S. Owens, "Joseph Smith and Kabbalah," Dialogue, 27, no. 3 (Fall 1994); hereinafter, Kaballah), 145.
(71) See Owen, Kaballah,145-146.
(72) Of interest to those who have gone through the temple, is the similarity between the Mormon rituals' "first token of the Melchizedek Priesthood or sign of the nail," and that of the Masonic honorary degree of Secret Monitor, the latter conferred only upon approved Master Masons. Whereas other Masonic degrees are based upon the story of Solomon, Hyrum Abiff, and Enoch's treasure, this degree revolves around 1 Samuel 20, David and Jonathan's interview of concern about King Saul. A Masonic brother of this degree learns, through a special handgrip how to caution (or encourage) another brother in public. In the Mormon temple the token is not a handgrip, per se. Rather, the individual receiving the token holds his hand out in the attitude of preparing to shake hands. The person giving the token, presses the point of his forefinger in the center of the receiver's palm, with his thumb on the opposite side of the hand. The Secret Monitor grip "is [also] given in the palm of the hand, with one finger, or two, impressing the palm, according to the necessity of caution, or to the occasion for encouragement." (Antimasonic Review, and Magazine by Henry Dana Ward, II:67.) In another order of Masonry, a Knight of Malta is told to "force the first finger into the centre of the [other's] palm." (Richardson's Monitor of Free Masonry, 126.) Cited in Tanner, Mormonism-Shadow or Reality? (1972), 488.
(73) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 12.
(74) See Owen, Kaballah, 143-145. The Beehive, in Freemasonry, was one of the ten emblems given to a Master Mason. Those who interpreted industry as seeking for physical gold, called "vulgar gold" were considered "drones".
(75) Herman R. Bangerter, The Significance of Ancient Geometric Symbols, January 15, 1940, as quoted in Temples of the Most High (N.B. Lundwall Publisher, Salt Lake City, UT, Feb. 26, 1941), 241. Cited in Truth-In-Love Letter, (Truth-In-Love Ministries, Inc., Milwaukie, OR), March 1997. (Emphasis mine.)
(76) According to Madam Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine, the circle sitting on a straight horizontal line . . . comes from the Aryans, Egyptians, and Chaldeans, representing hidden deity, creative power, and divine thought versus creation." In another place she says the circle's name is Ru; that "it sits upon the head of the vertical beam of the cross, across which is a horizontal beam, thus forming the cross, called the Sau-Cross." According to Blavatsky, this Ru/Sau cross was one time on the back of a Phoenician coin. This was also called "Venus' looking-glass," a symbol of human procreation.
(77) Brigham Young gave this purpose for the temple endowment: "Your endowment is to receive all those ordinances in the House of the Lord, which are necessary for you, after you have departed this life, to enable you to walk back to the presence of the Father, passing the angels who stand as sentinels, being enabled to give them the key words, the signs and tokens, pertaining to the Holy Priesthood, and gain you eternal exaltation in spite of earth and hell." (Journal of Discourses, 2:31-32.)
(78) Joseph Smith taught that the angels in heaven used Masonic handgrips. According to E. Cecil McGavin: "There is best evidence for believing that Joseph taught that Masonic principles and practices operated among the gods as well as on earth. His followers in Utah were taught, that there is a sort of divine Masonry among the angels who hold the priesthood, by which they can detect those who do not belong to their order. Those who cannot give the signs correctly are supposed to be impostors . . ." (Mormonism and Masonry, Salt Lake City, Bookcraft, 1949, 6.) See also Homer, "Similary in Priesthood in Masonry," 64.
(79) The five points of fellowship given in the LDS Temple, is never explained in detail. Members believe it is a ritualistic act which they must know to pass by the angels in heaven. Since Joseph Smith took it from Masonry, here is the Masonic understanding: "Foot to foot (teaches) that we will not hesitate to go on foot and out of our way to aid and succor a needy Brother; knee to knee, that we will ever remember a Brother's welfare, in all our applications to Deity; breast to breast, that we will ever keep, in our breast, a Brother's secrets, when communicated to us as such, murder and treason excepted; hand to back, that we will ever be ready to stretch forth our hand to aid and support a falling Brother; cheek to cheek, or mouth to ear, that we will ever whisper good counsel in the ear of a Brother, and in the most tender manner remind him of his faults, and endeavor to aid his reformation . . ." (McGavin, Mormonism and Masonry, 11.)
(80) Early Mormons, believed the "temple garment represented the 'white stone' or new name given to each candidate." Homer, "Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry," 40.
(81) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 12.
(82) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 16. (Italics, mine.)
(83) Tanner, Magic, 50.
(84) The Tanners also note that the last part of the word "Cu-morah" reminds one of the hill, Mo-riah. For other examples, as well as Biblical sources for the names of the books within the Book of Mormon, see Tanner, Mormonism-Shadow or Reality?, 94-95.
(85) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 1975, p. 5.
(86) Walter F. Prince, "Tests for the Authorship of the Book of Mormon," American Journal of Psychology, XXVIII, July, 1917. As cited in Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 6.
(87) According to Dr. Durham. (Italics, mine.)
(88) In June 1837, the Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate, along with the Encyclopaedia Britannica, mention that the Eleusianian mysteries were rituals passed down from the beginning of the world, but revealed only to special initiates and enumerated the various rituals, e.g., washings and anointings, oaths and penalties, a new name, etc. The Mormon temple ceremony comprises the same. See A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, edited by Shailer Mathews and Gerald Birney Smith, (N.Y., Macmillan, 1921), 300. See also Quinn, Mormon Hierarchy, 626.
(89) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 14. The Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate, in June of 1837 recognized this resemblance between the mystery religions of New Testament times. There were also books on these subjects.
(90) Hogan, Mormon Miscellaneous, 14. Smith was unaware that Masonry did not actually have an ancient origin, but began in A.D. 1717. After the last leader of the Rosicrucians died, the Masons adopted their mystery teachings, then burned the written evidence so as to destroy any connection with Rosicrucianism, instigating the idea that the contents of their organization descended directly from the ancients. See The Antimasonic Review and Magazine by Henry Dana Ward, 1828, 1:194.
(91) The availability of these sources were mentioned in June 1837 in the Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate.
(92) Owens, Kaballah, 151.
(93) Owens, Kaballah, 168.
(94) History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Period 1. History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet by Himself. (Salt Lake City, Deseret Book, 1978), 6:309.
(95) For an impressive list, see Owens, Kaballah, 191-192. Included was the Yalqut Khadash a 17th century Kabbalistic text which interestingly contained information "on the mystical and salvific intention of sexual union between male and female." (Owen, 191.) Neibauer published a Kabbalist treatise in a Mormon publication covering the Zohar, a famous text of the Jewish Kabbalah which spoke of sacred sexual unions. Joseph Smith's diary states he was studying with Neibauer in 1844. This is also confirmed by former LDS Historian, D. Michael Quinn in Mormon Hierarchy, 643. Smith, in turn, taught this to his key people, for in the Millennial Star, Orson Hyde drew an illustration of the Kingdom of God which resembled the Kabbalistic Tree of Life symbolizing the "mystical shape of the Godhead" which was illustrated in Fludd's 1621 Rosicrucian work. (See Owens, 186-187.)
(96) Home, "Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry," 108.
(97) Joseph Smith, History of the Church, (Deseret Book, 1978), 6:305-312. In one part of the sermon, in discussing Genesis, Smith states, "I will go to the old Bible". Owens states by the "old Bible", "he really means the Zohar, since in Kabbalistic lore, it was seen as such." (Owens, Kaballah, 183.)
(98) "Contrary to the word's common connotation, the tradition of Kabbalah was not a static historical legacy of dogma, but a dynamic phenomenon: the mutuable tradition of the Divine mystery as it unfolds itself to human cognition. Kabbalah conveyed as part of its tradition a complex theosophic vision of God but simultaneously asserted that this image was alive and open to further revelation. Thus the Kabbalist maintained a creative, visionary interaction with a living system of symbols and lore, and--most importantly--new prophetic vision was intrinsically part of the Kabbalists' understanding of their heritage." Lance S. Owens, "Joseph Smith and Kabbalah: The Occult Connection" (Dialogue, Fall 1994, Vol. 27, No. 3, p. 120. Owens' reference is Moshe Idel, Kabbalah: New Perspectives (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 260.
(99) Smith, History of the Church, 4:307. Smith said the German was the most correct translation because it corresponded closest to the revelations God had given him.
(100) President David O. McKay said, "The appearing of the Father and the Son to Joseph Smith is the foundation of this church." (Gospel Ideals, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1953, 85.) President Joseph Fielding Smith said, "Mormonism . . . must stand or fall on the story of Joseph Smith." (Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, comp. Bruce R. McConkie, Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1956, 1:188.)
(101) Journal of Discourses, Vol. 7, p. 289.
(102) Gospel Truth, Vol. 1, p. 255; quoted in He That Receiveth My Servants Receiveth Me, p. 54.
(103) Smith's request to join the Methodist church is believed by some to be due to the death of his first born child.
(104) Utah Christian Tract Society, newsletter July-August, 1971. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 54-55. See also, Mormon Claims Answered by Marvin W. Cowan, 9.
(105) The Amboy Journal, June 11, 1879, p. 1. Cited in Tanner, Magic, 55.
(106) See The Mormon Missionaries: An inside look at their real message and methods, by Janis Hutchinson (Kregel Pub.,1995).
*Copyright 2003. This article cannot be copied and used in a professional publication without express permission of the author.
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