Lunar/solar calendar intercalary months varied in name and precise length. However, seven extra lunar months were the chosen standard practice that matched with the seven-day week. The moon's light divides in darkness according to seven-day periods for the four phases of the moon, and seven intercalary months divided lunar years from solar years in the 19-year cycle of the Jewish calendar. These early people had to know planting and harvesting times for the crops they raised in order to survive. Agriculture was the major source of food production for early culture. The Jewish Calendar's Feast of First Fruits is one of the most celebrated worship festivals of the Bible. Linked to the Christian New Testament Pentecost, this celebration is a focal point for all Judeo-Christianity.
Feasts and festivals associated with farming in other cultures used a sacred-year. Agrarian societies often depended upon a sacred-year having 260-days. Intercalary days, a 360-day-civil-year, and the 260-day-sacred-year were integral to the calendars of early prehistory. These differing types of years were the common denominators for most lunar/solar calendars. Ancient calendar discovery begins with fundamental calendar tools.
The Sinai Peninsula holds the key to understanding past calendar systems. The Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, early Egyptians and Israelites all used lunar/solar calendars. Common patterns are evident in early calendar versions. The foremost notion is evidence of a 360-day civil type of year. A 360-day length of year was the earliest form of the calendar, and the stem of Middle Eastern calendars. Five additional days were included to complete the solar year. The last five days were generally associated with religious festivities. Methods used to include the last five days of the full year were similar. Both Egyptian and Sun Kingdoms' sister calendars intercalated five days each year. The sacred period of five-feast-days intercalates at the end of the year. A 360-day length of year was the basis for our modern 360-degree circle. Higher mathematics has paved the way to modern technology.
The 360-day length of year was common in very early prehistory. For example, Hindu chronology once used a year of 360-days for historical computations. Generally, five-special-days then add to complete the solar year. Using 30-days for a month was common with the sun moving for six months or 180-days to the north, and for same number of days to the south. Ancient Persia used 360-days for a year, plus five supplementary days. The old Babylonian year, and the early Egyptian year, was composed of 360-days each. The Assyrian year also consisted of 360 days. Even the story of the flood reckons in 30-day months (Genesis 7:11 - 8:4).
360 Day Midpoint between Lunar/Solar Years
The concept of a time split calendar tool is actually very old. Lunar/solar calendars split time at the 360-day mark for every single 1-year. The ancient idea of God dividing daylight and darkness into day and night expands to God dividing "lunar-time" and "solar-time." The lunar-side time split happened after twelve full lunar months. In whole numbers, another five or sometimes six-days were required to reach the 360-day midpoint length of year. The Mayan Calendar names the 360-day-calendar-year “Tun” (pronounced toon). My work with ancient calendars at timeemits.com applies hyphenated phrases such as 360-day-Tun-year to improve reading clarity.
The time split tool can find the midpoint of any time parameter. Ancient calendar terminology often doubled and divided known numerical periods. In effect, we are “reverse engineering” some aspects of the ancient calendars. Mayan cosmology divided the universe and time(s) into four equal quadrants. Ancient people observed both lunar and solar aspects of the heavens. The total lunar/solar difference between the two types of years amounts to ten or eleven days every year. Whole number integers were the norm. The Jewish Calendar adapts 11-days of intercalation per year. The Mayan and related Sun Kingdoms' calendars average about 10.5-days of lunar/solar separation time every year.
Intercalary gaps sub-divide into lunar/solar separation time or time splits. Time splits serve to define a lunar-side of time and a solar-side of time. The first time split case for a 360-day single year occurs in equations 1-3. The abbreviation “-l/s-” indicates lunar/solar time. Longer lunar/solar calendars advance the time split tool concept with multiples of years. Accrued intercalary days are respective multiples of the original single year time split. Only the number values change with later intercalations. The same time split design illustrates that more l/s cycles have occurred. A 20-year-l/s-cycle uses the same approach. The natural convenience of splitting time at the 360-day mark in any year happens seen for greater cycles.
Any l/s calendar year of 360-days balances the difference between lunar years and solar years. The lunar-side time split in equation 1 approximates the lunar year with 12-moon-months. The solar-side time split is beyond the 360-day central midpoint between lunar and solar years. The lunar-side time split subtracts 5.25-days of lunar-side separation time to arrive at 354.75-days in the generalized pattern of lunar/solar calendar development (Eqn 1). A solar-side time split adds 5.25-days after 360-days to arrive at 365.25-days (Eqn. 3). The ancient Egyptian Calendar and the Sun Kingdoms’ calendars of South and Central America specifically associate with a solar-side time split resulting in a 365.25-day-solar-year. The sun-side of lunar/solar calendars includes our modern leap day fraction for the purpose of this discussion. Equation 3 concludes the 365.25-day-solar-year for every single (1) year of the l/s calendar.
1. Lunar-Side Time Split
360 day-Tun-year midpoint every 1-l/s-year
- 5.25 days for lunar-year
= 354.75 day-lunar-year that approximate 354-days or 355-days
2. Lunar/Solar Separation Time Between L/S Years
- 354.75 day-lunar-year
= 10.5 days of l/s time split for 1-year
3. Solar-Side Time Split
360 day-Tun-year midpoint every 1-l/s-year
+ 5.25 days for solar-year
= 365.25 day-solar-year
The average 10.5-days of lunar/solar separation time calculate in equation 2. A 10.5-day lunar/solar Separation time is the wider ranging application in ancient calendars. Multiples of 360-day-Tun-years utilize the time-split tool by yielding 10.5-days for every single (1) year. Extending the single l/s calendar year to the Mayan “katun” 20-year multiple of the l/s calendar continues exactly this fundamental, approximate intercalation. About 10.5 days of l/s time split add to the lunar year having 12-moon-months to arrive at the estimated solar year for l/s calendars.
Spiritual interaction happens between lunar and solar time reckoning. Simplistic diagrams at timeemits.com help identify that the time based relationships occur. Calendar drawings are schematic symbols that allude to the eschatology, or history of involved culture. At dawn and dusk times, equinoxes and solstices, and significant points during the year there are immeasurable changes. A type of venturi effect becomes manifest. The spiritual dimension responds to these changes, whether they occur on Sunday mornings or on Friday nights. Clocks and calendars hanging on the wall mark the consistent passing of time. The difference found between lunar and solar reckoning increases with extreme time spans. Secrets of the calendar include time projections by notable Sun Kingdoms’ priest-astronomers or the holy “wise” men of the Middle East.
Ten-and-one-half days compare with eleven days to separate lunar and solar lengths of a year. Adjusting the lunar year to 354-days for computations and dividing by 12-lunar-months makes each lunar month about 29.5-days long. A 29.5-day length of month was very close to the actual 29.53-day-month and often approximated to a 30-day-lunar-month. The 29.5-day-month may have been interchangeable with lunar months of 30-days. Twelve lunar months of 30-days each amount to 360-days and establish the basic 360-day midpoint supposition behind early calendars. The given 360-day-Tun-year is the midpoint between lunar years and solar years. Both lunar and solar years evenly balance at the 360-day midpoint. The 360-day fulcrum midpoint evenly divides lunar-sides and solar-sides of the calendar.
Cultures worldwide largely identified with dual concepts of a feminine, lunar-side and a masculine, solar-side to time. The masculine solar-side of reckoning allocates solar-side periods. Male deities had female counterparts. For example, the Egyptian Osiris pairs with Isis in Egyptian mythology. Baal often pairs with Astarte in Babylonian lore. Cultivation properly depended on growing and harvest times of the calendar. The annual Nile flooding season was associated with Sothis. The Old Testament Astarte or Asheroth, was thought to provide blessings to groves and vineyards. The 360-day-Tun-year serves to reference a set number of days to be either feminine or masculine in nature. Effectively, time splits at the 360-day midpoint length to attribute about 5.25-days to the lunar-side and 5.25-days to the solar-side for a single, one year. This hypothesis of God (or gods) coming between is reiterated and carried forth in early calendar math.
Masculine notation implies the parallel solar-side time split 5.25-day addition to a 360-day-Tun-year. The solar year approximates to 365.25 days here. Solar-side time split amounts 5.25-days of difference between a 360-day midpoint length of year and a modern year having 365.25-days. Past calendars sometimes included our modern leap day fraction of about one-quarter day per year. The ancient propensity to assign masculine, sun-side and feminine, moon-side characteristics to lunar/solar intercalations exaggerates for the greater 20-year-l/s-cycle.
Understanding the 10.5-days of lunar/solar time split is instrumental to lengthy l/s calendar recording. Lunar/solar separation time split measuring 10.5-days per year builds in multiples that respect cycles of years. One multiple of a 20-year-l/s-cycle produces 210-days of l/s separation time. Equation 4 multiplies 10.5-days of l/s separation time by a 20-year cycle to arrive at 210-days of l/s separation time. Approximating 209-days of l/s separation time to 210-days of time split expands the 19-year lunar/solar cycle to a 20-year-l/s-cycle. Attributing half of lunar/solar separation to either feminine or masculine time is analogous to languages that have masculine and feminine genders of words. A word in a sentence must respond according to principles of grammar and meaning. Developing the dual feminine/masculine gender emphasizes ancient notions of time. Calendar science is a matter of style and application that describe units of time.
Alignment with calendar tools includes a feminine/masculine duality and reinforcement of the sacred number seven. Seven-days of the week reference the monthly fertility issue. Numerically matching 7-intercalary-months reinforces 7-day-weeks in the 20-year l/s cycle. The equivalent 210-days of l/s separation time result from seven 30-day-months (Eqn. 5). Equation 6 employs the divide by two, time split tool to show equal halves of 105-days each for the lunar-side and solar-side of a 20-year-lunar/solar-cycle.
4. Lunar/Solar Separation Time for 20-Year-L/S-Cycle
10.5 days of lunar/solar separation time
x 20 year-l/s-cycle
= 210 days of l/s separation time
5. Lunar/Solar Separation Time for 20-Year-L/S-Cycle
x 30 days
= 210 days of l/s separation time
6. Time Split Calendar Tool for 20-Year-L/S-Cycle
210 days of l/s separation time per 20-year-l/s-cycle
¸ 2 time split calendar tool
= 105 days for feminine, lunar-side time split
= 105 days for masculine, solar-side time split
210-Day L/S Time Split for a 20-Year Cycle
Central and South American people such as the Maya, Inca and Aztecs commonly approximated these same 209-days of lunar/solar separation time to be 210-days, or seven even months of 30-days each following 19-years of recognition. The twentieth year offered the next building block to time progression. The twentieth year of the lunar/solar calendar marks the time split that cuts 210-days in half (Eqn. 6). The lunar-side time split is 105-days in equation 7. Lunar-side separation time was feminine for years up to and including 360-day-Tun-years (Eqn. 1). The solar-side time split assigns 105-days to the male solar-side of the calendar (Eqn. 8). Ancient theology supporting the 20-year lunar/solar cycle supplies two equal halves of 105-days. Masculine and feminine genders describe the time splits according to layers. The female/male time analogy naturally results in the next offspring layer. The calendar measures by documenting generations. The fundamental 20-year lunar/solar system results in 210-days of lunar/solar separation time. The outcome is time split to become 105-days each for the lunar-side and solar-side.
Babylonian influence during the time of Ezra gave names to the months. Hebrews originally numbered the months. Masculine and feminine energies impart or strengthen from nearby cultures. The 19-year-l/s-cycle mixed with Jewish holiday periods and the 50-year Jubilee sequence. The total number of intercalary days varied to be either 209-days or 210-days. Some cultures even changed the calendar days at dawn. Two and one-half 20-year-l/s-cycles are equal to one 50-year Jubilee Cycle. The same number of intercalary days would apply for 525-days l/s separation time.
Middle Eastern calendars likely intercalated 7-months as 209-days of l/s separation time. Jewish, Babylonian and nearby sub-cultures were more nomadic. Precise solar calculations logically took place in the lasting cities of Egypt. Lunar observation identifies with mobile cultures. Observing Sabbath in seven days intervals reflects a lunar cosmology. Sabbath multiples of seven times seven days reckoned the Feast of Weeks. Extending Sabbath Days to Sabbath Years for the 50-Year Jubilee pattern emphasizes this philosophy. The ancient Egyptian Calendar closely links star and solar worship with a fixed culture. Sun Kingdoms’ cultures also had stationary ceremonial centers. Sighting equinoxes and solstices along favorite standing stones or obelisks feature a solar-side cosmology. The Egyptian Calendar is prone to have intercalated 210-days for a 20-year-l/s-cycle.
7. Lunar-Side Time Split for 20-Year-L/S-Cycle
210 days of l/s separation time per 20-year-l/s cycle
¸ 2 time split calendar tool
= 105 days and half of l/s separation is attributed to Eve,
nighttime feminine gender, lunar-side time split per 20-year l/s cycle
8. Solar-Side Time Split for 20-Year-L/S-Cycle
210 days of l/s separation time per 20-year l/s cycle
¸ 2 time split calendar tool
= 105 days and half of l/s separation is attributed to Adam,
daylight masculine gender solar-side, time split per 20-year-l/s-cycle
360-Day Midpoint of 20-Year L/S Cycle
Every twentieth year of 365-days had two basic components: 105-days of sun-side time and the other portion of 260-days. Sun Kingdoms' Calendars commonly used numerical matching to describe these two distinct, recurrent yearly elements having 105-days and 260-days. Archaeologists call the Mayan agricultural 260-day period a ritual Tzolken-year. This work will use the 260-day-Tzolken-sacred-year as basis for calculations. The 260-day-Tzolken-sacred-year began and ended on the same days within a 365-day normal solar year.
There are nuances of difference between the Sun Calendars and those of the Middle East. South and Central American people primarily focused their calendars upon the sun, stars and planetary Venus. Latitude of the Yucatan Peninsula played a role in substantiating the four cardinal points of the year: equinoxes and solstices. Aztec calendar shamans started their 52-year Calendar Round upon observing the Pleiades star cluster at zenith point. The Mayan Dresden Codex references 20-year-l/s-cycles according to the planet Venus. Venus is the mythological male god, Quetzalcoatl.
Shades of Egyptian mythology are contained in the lore of Quetzalcoatl. The resurrection story claims Quetzalcoatl was a ruling deity who traveled to the east to found a new empire. When he died, Venus appeared as a star to become the lord of dawn. A full cycle of visibility is complete in 584 days. The Dresden Venus Table records five full cycles in Maya calendar language to arrive at 2,920-days or 8-solar-years. The Dresden Codex is an elaborate document that mixes Mayan astronomy with the astrology.
Are you a pastor, educator or a student of the Holy Bible? Timeemits.com seeks anointed people to review and contribute to the Ages of Adam ministry. Ancient lunar/solar calendars like the Jewish and Mayan calendars provide the background to understanding early time. Ancient calendars of the Holy Bible use differences between the moon and sun, numerical matching and a 364-day calendar year to describe X-number of days that match with X-number of years. Ages_of_Adam is a free read at http://www.timeemits.com.
Clark Nelson is webmaster for www.timeemits.com/Get_More_Time.htm, author of Ages_of_Adam and sequel, Holy_of_Holies. Copyright 2006 Clark Nelson and timeemits.com All Rights Reserved.
Read more articles by Clark Nelson or search for articles on the same topic or others.