Selected Prophecies from the Book of Isaiah, Part 3
by Karl Kemp
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We continue the study of "Selected Prophecies from the Book of Isaiah" here in Part 3, starting with Isaiah chapter 11.
ISAIAH CHAPTER 11.
"Then a shoot, will spring from the stem of Jesse, And a branch from his roots will bear fruit. [[Isaiah 4:2 is one of many important cross-references, "In that day the Branch of the LORD [Yahweh] will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth will be the pride and adornment of the survivors [the remnant] of Israel." (Messiah is the "Branch of the LORD." His work will yield much good fruit, to say the least.) Also see Isa. 53:2; Jer. 23:5; Zech. 3:8; 6:12, 13; Rev. 5:5; and 22:16. ((I had a footnote: According to the BAGD Greek Lexicon, the Greek noun ("rhiza") translated "root" in Rev. 5:5 and 22:16 is used in the sense of a " 'shoot'...growing from the root, symbolically 'descendant'....")) In that Jesse was the father of David, Messiah, the "Son [of God], who was born a descendant of David according to the flesh" (Rom. 1:3), was a descendant of Jesse (cf., e.g., Isa. 9:7 ["the throne of David"]; 11:10; and Acts 13:22, 23). The good fruit that results from the saving work of Messiah will fill the earth in the millennial kingdom and will ultimately bring forth the new heaven and new earth with its new Jerusalem. All the members of true Israel will be saved through His work, as will the elect of the nations (cf. Rev. 21:27).]] (2) The Spirit of the LORD [In the NASB and some other translations of the Old Testament, the word LORD (with four capitalized letters) shows that the Hebrew has yhwh (Yahweh).] will rest on Him [[The names "Messiah" (Hebrew) and "Christ" (Greek) mean "the Anointed [with the Spirit] One." Compare Isa. 42:1; 48:16; 61:1 (with Luke 4:18); Matt. 3:16; and John 1:29-34. Many people under the old covenant were anointed by the Spirit for various functions, and all true Christians are anointed by the Holy Spirit, but no one has ever been anointed like Jesus Christ: He received the Spirit "without measure" (John 3:34).]], The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD [Yahweh]. (3) And He will delight in the fear of the LORD [["The fear of the LORD" (which is mentioned at the end of verse 2 and here in verse 3) is a good and a necessary thing. God's people should be afraid to sin against Him. This attitude of the heart goes with walking humbly before God and making it a top priority to walk in righteousness and holiness, in accordance with His Word, and by His grace. The need for the fear of the LORD is emphasized in the Old Testament and in the New Testament. This topic is discussed, with many Biblical references, under Phil. 2:12-16, in my paper "The Christian, the Law, and Legalism").]], And He will not judge by what His eyes see, Nor make a decision by what His ears hear [[Compare John 7:24. Very often the judges among men make wrong judgments because they don't know all the facts. Another problem is that the judges among men often are biased, and some even take bribes to render unfair decisions. The judgments rendered by Messiah are perfect in every way. Messiah is a man born in the lineage of King David, who is powerfully anointed by the Spirit, but when we take into account all that the Scriptures reveal about Him, we can see that He also is God, God the Son, who was with the Father in the beginning, the One through whom and for whom all things were created. He, for one thing, is the perfect Judge. (Cf., e.g., John 5:22, 27.)]]; (4) But with righteousness He will judge the poor, And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth [Cf., e.g., Isa. 9:7; 16:5; 29:17-21; and Psalm 72:2-4, 12-14.]; And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked. [[His words have power to destroy all who persist in wickedness (cf., e.g., Isa. 49:2; 2 Thess. 2:8; Rev. 1:16; 2:16; and 19:15). Christ's judging and removing all who are committed to evil (which includes the devil and his evil hosts along with the men who persist in following the devil in His rebellion against God) is part of what He must do to save His people ((true Israel and the elect of the nations [I had a footnote: Zechariah chapter 11 is an important cross-reference that deals with God's end-time judgment of the world. In my verse-by-verse discussion of that chapter, in chapter 14 of my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture," I dealt quite a bit with God's salvation plans for the (afflicted) remnant of the nations.])) and to establish God's worldwide kingdom. At the end of this age, God's enemies among men will be led by Antichrist, who will be empowered by Satan (Rev. 13:2).]] (5) Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins, And faithfulness the belt about His waist. [[Compare, for example, Isa. 9:4-7; 16:5; and Rev. 19:11. "Righteousness" and "faithfulness" will characterize His work of saving and judging. I'll quote part of what John N. Oswalt said under this verse ("Book of Isaiah, chapters 1-39" [Eerdmans, 1986], pages 281, 282). "The general sense of the verse is clear. The Messiah will bring justice and equity upon the earth because fundamental to his own character will be two essential qualities: uprightness and dependability born of integrity or faithfulness. Fundamentally, these are two characteristics of God upon which the whole biblical understanding of life is built (Isa. 5:16; 65:16; Ps. 40:11 [40:10 in the English Bible]; 119:75, 142; Zech. 8:8). Because he is as he is, the whole universe can be understood in a coherent and consistent way. ... "Righteousness" is that capacity for doing the right thing in all circumstances and frequently involves keeping one's promises, so that there are times when it may be translated by "deliverance" (51:8) or "vindication" (54:17). "Faithfulness" comes from the root which means to be dependable or true. ...."]] (6) And the wolf will dwell with the lamb, And the leopard will lie down with the young goat, And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little boy will lead them. (7) Also the cow and the bear will graze, Their young will lie down together, And the lion will eat straw like the ox. (8) The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, And the weaned child will put his hand on the viper's den. [[Messiah's overthrow of sin and its consequences will be so thorough that it will, according to these verses, even remove the curse that came on the animal kingdom through sin (cf. Gen. 1:30; Isa. 65:25; Ezek. 34:23-25; Hos. 2:18; and Rom. 8:18-22). This prophecy will apparently be fulfilled literally (at least to some significant extent) in the millennial kingdom.]] (9) They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain [cf. Isa. 65:25], For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD [cf. Hab. 2:14] As the waters cover the sea. [[God's holy mountain centers in Jerusalem (e.g., Isa. 2:2; 65:11), but His kingdom will cover the earth (cf., e.g., Zech. 14:9). (A mountain can be used as a symbol for a kingdom [cf. Dan. 2:35].) Although the devil will be totally restrained throughout the millennium (Rev. 20:3; cf. Isa. 24:21, 22), the potential for sin among the nations will still exist (but not for the members of true Israel, who will all have been glorified by the time the millennial kingdom begins). Compare Dan. 7:12; Isa. 65:20; and Zech. 14:16-19. The great rebellion by a large number of people from the nations at the end of the millennium demonstrates that the potential for sin will still be all too real at that time (Rev. 20:7-10).
By the time we get to the eternal state pictured in Revelation chapters 21, 22, the sin problem will have been fully solved for the elect of the nations. (On the elect of the nations, who are also saved through the atoning death of the Lord Jesus Christ, see Rev. 21:3, 4; 21:24-22:1-3.) We learn more about God's salvation plans for the nations as we continue with Isaiah chapter 11, and this topic is included to some extent in just about every passage from the book of Isaiah we are considering in this paper. This topic is discussed in some detail in my eschatological paper dated November 1998 that was split up into "Matthew Chapters 24 and 25"; "1 Corinthians Chapter 15"; "Revelation Chapters 20-22"; and "More Regarding God's Salvation Plans for the Nations."
The "knowledge of the LORD [Yahweh]" here includes knowing (and submitting to the fact) that the God of the Bible, the God of true Israel, is the Creator and the only God, Savior, and Judge, and it includes knowing (and submitting) to His divine order (e.g., His truth, righteousness, holiness, and peace). Note the "spirit of KNOWLEDGE" in Isa. 11:2.]] (10) Then [[I would translate "And" with the KJV and NKJV or leave the Hebrew ("w" [some call it "v"]) untranslated with the NIV. The word "then" tends to (wrongly) give the impression that the things spoken of in Isa. 11:10 will take place later than the things spoken of in Isa. 11:4-9.]] in that day The nations will resort to the root of Jesse, Who will stand as a signal [[Compare, for example, Isa. 2:2-4. In the margin the NASB has, "or, standard." I prefer "standard" or the translation "banner" of the NIV. The same Hebrew word ("nes") is also used in Isa. 11:12; 49:22; and 62:10; it is translated "standard" by the NASB and "banner" by the NIV in those verses.]] for the peoples [[Also see the first line of Isa. 11:12. The "peoples" here (and often) is a parallel expression for the "nations." The nations/peoples here (and often) are distinct from the people of (true) Israel.]]; And His resting place [Cf. Psalm 132:14.] will be glorious. [[It is a very common Biblical theme to speak of (the humbled, repentant remnant of) the nations being saved by Messiah after He judges the world at the end of this age. The fact that the apostle Paul quoted Isa. 11:10 in Rom. 15:12 (he quoted from the Septuagint version, which is somewhat different than the Hebrew) and applied it to Gentiles coming to Christ during New Testament days doesn't detract from the fact that the primary fulfillment of Isa. 11:10 won't come to pass until after the second coming of Christ and His judgment of the world (as in Isaiah chapter 2, and often).]] (11) Then [And] it will happen on that day that the Lord Will again recover the second time with His hand The remnant of His people, who will remain, From Assyria, Egypt, Pathros [Upper (southern) Egypt], Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, And from the islands of the sea. [["The remnant of His people" here refers to the scattered remnant of Israel/Judah that will remain after God's end-time judgment of the world. They will be recovered a second time, but this time they will be recovered from a worldwide dispersion, unlike their first recovery in the exodus from Egypt. The worldwide dispersion pictured here in Isa. 11:11 goes far beyond the northern kingdom's being carried into captivity by Assyria in Isaiah's day and the southern kingdom's being carried into captivity by Babylon more than a hundred years later. Isaiah's ministry began by 740/739 BC and continued for some fifty to sixty years. We will discuss these things further as we continue.]] (12) And He will lift up a standard for the nations And assemble the banished ones of Israel, And will gather the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth. [[The "banished ones of Israel" ("Israel" here and "Ephraim" in the next verse refer to the northern kingdom) and "the dispersed of Judah" ("Judah" here and in the next verse refers to the southern kingdom) speak of that part of the end-time remnant of Israel/Judah that will be living in other lands (other than Israel/Judah), who have been scattered across the earth by God's judgments through the nations (e.g., Assyria, Babylon, and Rome). The nation had split into two parts (the northern and southern kingdoms) after the death of King Solomon in 931 BC.
The assembling/gathering of the end-time remnant of Israel/Judah from the ends of the earth after God's end-time judgment is a common prophetic theme (e.g., Isa. 10:20-23; 14:2; 49:22; 60:4, 9; 66:20; and Zeph. 3:8-11). ((I had a footnote: Isaiah 10:20-23 (and Rom. 9:27-29) are discussed in this paper toward the end of the chapter on Isaiah chapter 27. Isaiah chapters 14, 49, and 66:9-24 are discussed verse-by-verse in this paper. Isaiah chapter 60 and Zeph. 3:8-11 are briefly discussed in section 1 of my paper, "More Regarding God's Salvation Plans for the Nations.")) As the references just cited demonstrate, with the exception of Isa. 10:20-23, the remnant of Israel/Judah is pictured being brought to God at Jerusalem by the humbled, repentant remnant of the nations. Isaiah 10:20-23 include another very important end-time prophetic theme: Far more important than returning to the land of Israel/Judah, the remnant of Israel/Judah must return to God in repentance and faith.((I had a footnote: On the need for the humbled, repentant remnant of Israel/Judah to return to God (and not just for those scattered across the earth to return to the land of Israel/Judah), see on Mic. 5:3 on pages 252, 253 of my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture" (including the endnotes).)) Isaiah 10:21 says, "A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob to the mighty God."
Let's consider what it will mean for the remnant of Israel/Judah to return to God (whether they are living in the land of Judah/Israel, or scattered across the earth). From our New Testament perspective, we can see that they will submit (in repentance and faith) to the Lord Jesus Christ and the new covenant in His blood (cf., e.g., Zech. 12:10-14; Matt. 23:37-39; Rom. 9:27-29; 11:25-27; Rev. 10:7; 11:13, 19 [I listed Rev. 10:7 and Rev. 11:19 here because these verses confirm that God will ultimately bring to pass all the saving promises He made to ancient Israel. This does not mean that all the promises will be fulfilled exactly in the manner ancient Israel anticipated, but they will be fulfilled, and often in a manner more glorious than what was anticipated. Israel did not fully understand the glory of salvation through Messiah because, for one thing, they did not understand the full glory of the Person of Messiah. We are dependent on God's new-covenant revelation to adequately understand the glory of Messiah and His saving work.]; 12:13-17; and 15:2, 3). When the end-time remnant of Israel submit to Christ, they will be grafted into the tree of God's true Israel (Rom. 11:23, 24). The New Testament also confirms that God will save the humbled, repentant remnant of the nations after His end-time judgment of the world (cf. Rev. 15:3, 4; 20:3; 21:3, 4, 24-27; 22:1-3). (The entire book of Revelation has been discussed in a verse-by-verse manner in my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture" [Rev. 11:1-14:5] or in my papers on Revelation chapters 1-10; Rev. 14:6-19:21; and Revelation chapters 20-22.)
There is one more detail that we should consider. In Isaiah's day the northern kingdom fell to the Assyrians, and they were carried into exile. The great majority did not return from exile, and there is no indication that many of them continued to live for God. They were, for the most part, absorbed into the nations. (By contrast, many from Judah did return from the Babylonian exile, and many who stayed in Babylon continued to live for God. They continued to exist as a nation and as a people; and there always was a godly remnant among the people.) By the time Jesus lived on the earth, the people of the northern kingdom had (for the most part at least) ceased to exist as a separate people, with the exception of those individuals who had become part of Judah.
Some Christians believe that the descendants of the ancient northern kingdom will be saved in large numbers in a mysterious way in the last days. God could do this, of course, but I believe there probably is a better way to understand the fulfillment of these prophetic words. (See the discussion of Zechariah chapter 10 on pages 197-202 of my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture.") In Hos. 1:9 God said to the people of the northern kingdom, "you are not my people and I am not your God," but He went on to speak of their ultimate restoration (see Hos. 1:10, 11; 2:23). (Hosea 1:1 compared with Isa. 1:1 demonstrates that Hosea was a contemporary of Isaiah.) In Rom. 9:24-27 the apostle Paul applied the words of Hos. 1:10; 2:23 (regarding those who were not God's people but who were to become God's people) to the Gentiles who became Christians (and thereby became part of God's true Israel). From this point of view "the banished ones of Israel" (Isa. 11:12) could include the Gentiles who become part of God's true Israel through faith in Christ in the last days (in the days after the mid-week rapture).
I believe we can say that all the people of Israel/Judah who are assembled/gathered to God at Jerusalem after His end-time judgment of the world will have become Christians (part of true Israel).]] (13) Then the jealousy of Ephraim [another name for the northern kingdom] will depart, And those who harass Judah will be cut off; Ephraim will not be jealous of Judah, And Judah will not harass Ephraim. [[There was much strife and warfare between the northern and southern kingdoms, but after Israel/Judah is saved through Messiah, the saved remnant will coexist in peace as one kingdom, true Israel (cf., e.g., Ezek. 37:15-28). Furthermore, as we learned earlier in this chapter (and in chapters 2, 9), the remnant of the nations will be at peace with the remnant of (true) Israel; they will submit to the God of Israel; and they will be part of His worldwide kingdom.]] (14) [These next three verses picture the end-time scene before Messiah has totally destroyed His enemies among the nations and left a humbled, repentant remnant of the nations.] They [the saved remnant of Israel/Judah] will swoop down on the slopes of the Philistines on the west; Together they will plunder the sons of the east; They will possess Edom and Moab, And the sons of Ammon will be subject to them. (15) And the LORD [Yahweh] will utterly destroy The tongue of the Sea of Egypt; And He will wave His hand over the River With His scorching wind; And He will strike it into seven streams And make men walk over dry-shod. (16) And there will be a highway from Assyria For the remnant of His people who will be left, Just as there was for Israel In the day that they came up out of the land of Egypt." [[The names of the nations listed in Isa. 11:14 were immediate neighbors of ancient Israel/Judah, with whom they often had conflicts. Isaiah 11:15 mentions two major ancient enemies of Israel/Judah, Egypt and Assyria. These ancient kingdoms/nations (all these kingdoms/nations existed in Isaiah's day) represent the kingdoms/nations that will exist in the last days. The "world" kingdom in the last days will be headed up by Antichrist. In God's end-time judgment of the world, He will deal will all His enemies, who are also the enemies of His people, true Israel. In the days of Isaiah, Assyria was a "world" kingdom (one of the seven "world" kingdoms the Bible speaks of); Egypt had been a "world" kingdom in the past, and it still was a substantial nation in the days of Isaiah. For a while Egypt was subdued by the Assyrians and became part of the Assyrian kingdom.
For God to destroy the tongue of the Sea of Egypt (Isa. 11:15) means that He will destroy all opposition in Egypt (cf., e.g., Isa. 19:16-25). The wording here in Isa. 11:15 builds on the fact that God had judged Egypt in the past, at the time of the exodus, at which time He opened a way through the Sea for the sons of Israel to escape from Egypt (in which the pursuing Egyptians were destroyed) as part of His end-time judgment of Egypt. See Isa. 11:11; 51:9-11. For God to wave His hand over the River ((which undoubtedly refers to the Euphrates [I had a footnote: Assyria came against Israel from beyond the mighty Euphrates River (cf. Isa. 7:20). The invading, conquering armies of Assyria coming against Damascus and Israel/Judah were poetically described as the overflowing waters of the Euphrates River in Isa. 8:7, 8.])) with His scorching wind and to strike it into seven streams, which can then be easily crossed by the remnant of Israel on the way back to their land, is a way of saying that God will judge the Assyrian kingdom and remove all opposition to Him and His people. See Zech. 10:9-12, which also speaks of God's end-time judgment of Egypt and Assyria in a similar way. The idea is that God's end-time judgment of the world, which will deal with and remove all His enemies and the enemies of His people (true Israel), will result in a second exodus for His people. As I mentioned, several prophetic verses show that, after the nations have been judged, they will even help the saved, dispersed remnant of true Israel return to Jerusalem and the land of Israel.
Quite a few prophetic passages make the point that the humbled, repentant remnant of the nations will, in some ways, be subject to Israel (cf., e.g., Isa. 45:14-25; 49:23; 60:1-14; 61:4-9 and Dan. 7:17, 22, 27), but it is clear that this will mean blessing for the remnant of the nations in that they will have come to a right relationship with God, being saved through Israel's Messiah. The book of Revelation confirms that true Israel will reign forever, which includes, I believe, reigning over (the elect of) the nations, including in the eternal state (Rev. 20:1-22:5).]]
Isaiah chapter 13 starts out (13:1-5), and it ends up (13:14-22), prophesying about God's judgment of ancient Babylon through the Medes (13:17) and Persians. (The fall of ancient Babylon [539/538 BC] through the Medes and Persians took place more than a hundred years after Isaiah died.) In the verses we are discussing in this paper (13:6-13), Isaiah's prophecy clearly goes beyond the judgment of ancient Babylon and prophesies regarding God's end-time judgment of the world (including Israel). God's worldwide kingdom cannot be established in its full sense until the kingdom of the world has been destroyed. Babylon, as in the book of Revelation, is sometimes used as a symbol for the world.
This prophecy includes the familiar theme that God will leave a remnant of mankind (including a remnant of Israel and a remnant of the nations) after His end-time judgment of the world.
"Wail, for the day of the LORD [cf., e.g., Isa. 2:12; 13:9; 34:2; and Zeph. 1:7, 14] is near! It will come as destruction from the Almighty. (7) Therefore all hands will fall limp, And every man's heart will melt. (8) They will be terrified, Pains and anguish will take hold of them; They will writhe like a woman in labor, They will look at one another in astonishment, Their faces aflame. (9) Behold, the day of the LORD [Yahweh] is coming, Cruel, with fury and burning anger, To make the land [[In this context it would probably be better to translate the Hebrew noun ("erets") "earth" instead of "land." Earth is a common translation for this noun; the NASB translated it "earth" 656 times in the Old Testament. Note the word "world" in Isa. 13:11.]] a desolation; And He will exterminate its sinners from it. (10) For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not flash forth their light; The sun will be dark when it rises And the moon will not shed its light. [On the darkness that accompanies the day of the Lord, see number 9 on pages 14, 15 of my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture."] (11) Thus I will punish the world for its evil And the wicked for their iniquity [cf. Isa. 11:4; 26:21]; I will also put an end to the arrogance of the proud [cf. Isa. 2:11] And abase the haughtiness of the ruthless [cf. Isa. 29:5, 20]. (12) I will make mortal man scarcer than pure gold And mankind [scarcer] than the gold of Ophir [cf. 1 Kings 9:28; Job 28:16; and Psalm 45:9]. [[This verse, which is poetry in the Hebrew, is more pessimistic regarding the number of people (the remnant) that will be left after God's end-time judgment than many other verses (cf., e.g., Isa. 2:2-4), but there are other verses similar to this verse (e.g., Isa. 17:5, 6; 24:6, 13, 14), and Zeph. 1:18 sounds even more pessimistic than this verse (but compare Zeph. 3:8-11, 20). See under Isa. 24:6; 25:3. (Isaiah chapters 24-27 are discussed on this Christian article site under the name "Isaiah's Little Apocalypse" and in the paper on Isaiah on my internet site.)]] (13) Therefore I will make the heavens tremble, And the earth will be shaken from its place At the fury of the LORD [Yahweh] of hosts In the day of His burning anger." [Compare Isa. 2:19, 21; 24:1, 18-23; 34:4; Hag. 2:6, 21; Heb. 12:26-29; and Rev. 6:12-17.]
ISAIAH CHAPTER 14.
"When the LORD [Yahweh] will have compassion on Jacob and again choose Israel [cf., e.g., Isa. 54:4-17], and settle them in their own land, then strangers will join them and attach themselves to the house of Jacob. [[The names "Jacob" and "Israel" are used interchangeably here. The setting, as in so many of the prophetic passages we are studying in this paper, is right after God has judged the world at the end of this age. By that time the end-time remnant of Israel/Jacob will have become part of God's true Israel through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. The "strangers" are the humbled, repentant remnant of the nations. This remnant of the nations will "join...attach themselves to" true Israel through submitting to the God of true Israel (including God the Son, the Messiah), but as the next verse (and many other verses) demonstrates, they are not fully incorporated into true Israel - the nations remain distinct from true Israel. This is true during the millennial kingdom and in the subsequent eternal state pictured in Revelation chapters 21, 22. ((I had a footnote: The elect of the nations will be saved through the Lord Jesus Christ (e.g., Rev. 21:27), but since they are distinct from true Israel, it might be confusing to call them Christians.))]] (2) The peoples will take them along and bring them to their place [On the (remnant of the) peoples of the nations bringing the dispersed members of true Israel back to the land of Israel, see under Isa. 11:10-12 in this paper.], and the house of Israel will possess them as an inheritance in the land of the LORD [Yahweh] as male servants and female servants; and they will take their captors captive and will rule over their [former] oppressors. [On the nations being subject to true Israel, see under Isa. 11:14-16.] (3) And it will be in the day when the LORD [Yahweh] gives you rest from your pain and turmoil and harsh service in which you have been enslaved [cf., e.g., Isa. 40:1, 2], (4) that you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon, and say, 'How the oppressor has ceased, And how fury has ceased! [["You" here in Isa. 14:3, 4 is Israel. The end-time remnant of Israel won't experience the full salvation pictured in Isa. 14:1, 2 until Antichrist (the last ruler of the "world" kingdom) has been destroyed and it is time for the millennial kingdom to be established.
It must also be understood that the salvation pictured in Isa. 14:1, 2 cannot come to pass until the ultimate "oppressor," Satan, the god of this world, has been dealt with (cf., e.g., Isa. 24:21, 22; 27:1; and Rev. 20:1-3, 7-10). (Satan is the ruler behind Antichrist [Rev. 13:2].) Many think that Satan is directly spoken to in Isa. 14:12-14. I agree with the majority that Satan probably is not directly spoken to in those verses. It is clear, however, that the pride and the fall of the "king of Babylon" follows in the footsteps of the pride and fall of the god of this world. Satan is the one behind all the evil rulers of the kingdoms of this world.
We will continue this verse-by-verse discussion of Isaiah chapter 14 under verse 4 in Part 4.
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