I'll quote from the "New American Standard Bible," 1995 edition, unless otherwise noted. Frequently I'll make comments in the middle of quotations in brackets [ ] or [[ ]] to make them more obvious.
" 'Now therefore thus says the LORD [Yahweh] God of Israel concerning this city of which you say [This "you" is plural in the Hebrew.], "It is given into the hand of the king of Babylon by sword, by famine and by pestilence." [[See verse 24. As verses 1-35 show, God was speaking here of Jerusalem's being given into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, in the days of Jeremiah. At the time Jeremiah received these prophetic words, the army of the king of Babylon was already besieging Jerusalem, and Jeremiah had been "shut up in the court of the guard, which was in the house of the king of Judah, because Zedekiah king of Judah had shut him up" (Jer. 32:2, 3; see 2 Kings 25:1, 2; Jer. 32:1-5; and 33:1). The city fell and the temple was destroyed in 587/586 BC. "Jerusalem, as the capital, represents the whole kingdom" (C. F. Keil, "Commentary on the Old Testament," Vol. VIII, page 59).]] (37) Behold, I will gather them out of all the lands [These words "I will gather them out of all the lands" along with the words of verses 38-40 confirm that these prophetic words refer (for the most part) to God's end-time salvation of Judah.] to which I have driven them in My anger, in My wrath and in great indignation; and I will bring them back to this place and make them dwell in safety [on "dwell in safety," cf. Jer. 23:6; 33:16; Ezek. 34:25, 28, 29; and Zech. 14:11]. [[Compare, for example, Deut. 30:1-10; Isa. 11:11-16; Jer. 3:12-18; 16:14, 15; 23:1-8; 30:3, 8-11, 18-22; 31:1-40; Ezek. 11:17-20; Hos. 1:10, 11; and Amos 9:11-15. Many of the people of Judah came back to Jerusalem and the land of Judah after Cyrus, the Medo-Persian king, overthrew the Babylonians in 539/538 BC and permitted the Jews to return (he even helped them return to rebuild the temple, etc.), all in accordance with God's prophetic words through His prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and others. That return from captivity, however, was only a small part of the fulfillment of the prophetic words we are studying here (Jer. 32:36-44). These verses, like so many of the verses we have already studied from Jeremiah chapters 3, 16, 23, 30, and 31 (and like so many other prophetic passages in the Old Testament), will not receive their primary fulfillment until the end of this age when the remnant of Judah (and Israel) will be saved and brought back from their worldwide dispersion. The following verses in this chapter (especially verses 39, 40) confirm the end-time perspective of these prophetic words.]] (38) They shall be My people, and I will be their God [cf. Jer. 7:23; 24:7; 30:22; 31:33; Ezek. 14:11; and Zech. 8:8.]; (39) and I will give them one heart and one way [Compare Jer. 31:33; Ezek. 11:19, 20; 36:26, 27. This sanctifying change will come to pass through new-covenant salvation (cf., e.g., Jer. 31:31-34; 32:39, 40) in the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. Isa. 55:3-5; Jer. 23:5, 6; 30:9, 21; Ezek. 34:23, 24; 37:24, 25; Hos. 3:5; Luke 1:69; Acts 2:17-26; and 13:23, 24).], that they may fear Me always, for their own good [see verse 40] and for the good of their children after them. [[The Old and New Testaments speak much of the need for God's people to fear Him (cf., e.g., Ex. 20:20; Lev. 25:17; Deut. 5:29; 6:2, 13, 24; 8:6; 10:12; 17:19; Jer. 32:40; Psalms 33:18; 34:7, 9; Matt. 10:28; Luke 12:5; 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 1:17; 2:17; Rev. 11:18; and 19:5); that is, they must fear sinning against Him; God's people sinning against Him (and all sin is against God, one way, or another) never works for the good of God's people, and it always robs Him of glory (but He will be fully glorified in the end). God went out of His way to inform Israel again and again that righteousness brings blessings and sin brings curses. We must love God (to the extent we really love God, we won't sin against Him), but we must also fear Him - the Bible teaches both. The Bible has a lot to say about the God's love, but it also (very much including the New Testament) has a lot to say about His wrath. We cannot abide in His love unless we are keeping His commandments (cf., e.g., John 14:21, 23; 15:10; and Jude 1:21).]] (40) I will make an everlasting covenant with them [cf. Isa. 55:3-5; Jer. 31:31-34; 50:5; Ezek. 16:60; and 37:26-28] that I will not turn away from them [cf. Ezek. 39:29], to do them good [see verse 39]; and I will put the fear of Me in their hearts so that they will not turn away from Me [see under verse 39]. (41) I will rejoice over them to do them good [cf. Deut. 30:9; Isa. 62:5; 65:19; and Zeph. 3:17] and will faithfully plant them in this land [cf. Jer. 24:6; 31:28; and Amos 9:15] with all My heart and with all My soul. (42) For thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "Just as I brought all this great disaster on this people, so I am going to bring on them all the good that I am promising them. [Compare Jer. 31:28; Zech. 8:14, 15; and Jer. 33:14.] (43) Fields will be bought in this land [cf. Jer. 32:6-15] of which you say [This "you" is plural in the Hebrew (cf. verse 36).], 'It is a desolation, without man or beast; it is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.' [See Jer. 32:25; cf. Jer. 33:10. The words of verses 43, 44 have much application for the days after the return from the Babylonian captivity.] (44) Men will buy fields for money, sign and seal deeds, and call in witnesses [cf. Jer. 32:10] in the land of Benjamin [Note "the land of Benjamin" in verse 8 (see verses 6-15).], in the environs of Jerusalem, in the cities of Judah, in the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland and in the cities of the Negev [cf. Jer. 17:26; 33:13]; for I will restore their fortunes [cf. Jer. 29:14; 30:3, 18; 31:23; and 33:11, 26]," declares the LORD [Yahweh].' "
JEREMIAH CHAPTER 33
"Then the word of the LORD [Yahweh] came to Jeremiah the second time, while he was still confined in the court of the guard [The word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah the first time while he was confined in the court of the guard, as recorded in Jeremiah chapter 32 (see Jer. 32:2).], saying, (2) 'Thus says the LORD [Yahweh] who made the earth ["Lit it" (margin of NASB); the context shows that mankind (and the nations) is included as part of what "the earth" means here. (The Septuagint has "the earth.") Compare Jer. 10:16; 32:17; and 51:19.], the LORD [Yahweh] who formed it to establish it, the LORD [Yahweh] is His name [Yahweh created the world to be in divine order, and (even though the world has been out of divine order because of the rebellion of Satan, a third of the angels, and most of mankind - rebellion leads to temporary chaos) everything will be in divine order when He has completed His work of saving and judging. When He has completed His work, (true) Israel (and the repentant remnant of the nations) will have been saved and glorified and all unrepentant rebels (starting with the devil) will have been removed from His world/kingdom by judgment.], (3) "Call to Me [cf. Psalm 50:15; 91:15; Isa. 55:6 (with 55:7-13); and Jer. 29:12 (with verses 13, 14)] and I will answer you [The context and the Hebrew here (including the masculine singular pronoun "you" twice) show that God is speaking to Jeremiah.], and I will tell you great and mighty ["unsearchable" NIV; "hidden" NRSV and others] things [cf. Jer. 32:17, 27], which you do not know [cf. Isa. 48:6]." [[God challenges Jeremiah to call to Him for revelation, and He will tell him great and hidden things, things which he doesn't know, things that deal with His plans to save Israel (in the last days) with a very full salvation. Apparently God is referring to the things He will go on to tell Jeremiah (and his readers) to the end of this chapter - He goes on to tell of His plans to save Israel (Judah and Israel [see verses 7, 14]). Verses 4, 5 are introductory; they don't speak of God's plans to save Israel; they powerfully demonstrate how badly Israel needs salvation. (This information about God's saving Israel isn't unique to Jeremiah chapter 33 in that much of this information is contained in other prophecies in the book of Jeremiah, and in other prophetic books.) It is understood that God's saving the end-time remnant of Israel/Judah will involve His judging Israel/Judah and the other nations of the world, which will also lead to the salvation of the remnant of Israel/Judah and the remnant of the other nations (compare Jer. 33:9; see under Jer. 3:17; 31:7 in this paper).]] (4) For thus says the LORD [Yahweh] God of Israel concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah which are broken down to make a defense against the siege ramps [cf. Isa. 22:10; Jer. 32:24; Ezek. 21:22; and Hab. 1:10] and against the sword, (5) "While they are coming to fight with the Chaldeans and to fill them with the corpses of men whom I have slain in My anger and in My wrath, and I have hidden My face from this city [cf. Isa. 8:17; Jer. 18:17; 21:10; and Mic. 3:4] because of all their wickedness [[Compare, for example, Jer. 21:4-7; 32:5. The Jews, having broken down the houses of the city and the houses of the kings of Judah to make a defense against the siege ramps and against the sword are coming to try to stop the Chaldean (Babylonian) soldiers from taking the city, but because of God's judgment of the people of Judah, they end up filling the demolished houses of Jerusalem with their own dead bodies.]]: (6) Behold, I will bring to it health and healing, and I will heal them [cf. Jer. 30:17; and Hos. 6:1]; and I will reveal to them ["and will let them enjoy" NIV] an abundance of peace and truth [cf. Isa. 66:12]. (7) I will restore the fortunes of Judah and the fortunes of Israel [Compare Jer. 30:3 (see under 30:3 in this paper), 18; 32:44; and 33:26.] and will rebuild them as they were at first [cf. Isa. 1:26; Jer. 31:4, 38; and Amos 9:14, 15]. (8) I will cleanse them from all their iniquity by which they have sinned against Me, and I will pardon all their iniquities by which they have sinned against Me and by which they have transgressed against Me. [[Compare, for example, Psalm 51:2; Isa. 44:22; Jer. 23:6; 31:23, 31-34; 32:39, 40; 50:20; Ezek. 36:25-27; Mic. 7:18, 19; and Zech. 13:1 (with Zech. 12:10-14). ((I had a footnote: It is important to see that the cleansing of Ezek. 36:25-27 and Zech. 13:1 involves a lot more than just washing away the pollution that had come upon the people of Israel because of their past transgressions. These verses (and many others) speak of the new-covenant cleansing that comes through the shed blood of the Lamb of God in the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit that enables born-again believers to stop sinning - they are cleansed from sinning. Romans 11:25-27, for example, speak of God's removing ungodliness from Jacob through new-covenant salvation. Also see under Jer. 31:33.))]] (9) It will be to Me a name of joy, praise and glory before all the nations of the earth which will hear of all the good that I do for them [Compare, for example, Isaiah chapters 60, 62; Jer. 3:17; 4:2; 16:19; and 32:37-44], and they will fear and tremble [This fear and trembling on the part of the remnant of the nations after God's end-time judgment of the world and His full salvation of Israel will lead to their salvation (see under verse 3). The saved remnant of the nations will, however, always be distinct from the people of true Israel; the people of true Israel will reign with the Lord Jesus Christ forever.] because of all the good [cf. Jer. 24:6; 32:42] and all the peace that I make for it." (10) Thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "Yet again there will be heard in this place, of which you say [This "you" is plural in the Hebrew (cf. Jer. 32:36, 43).], 'It is a waste, without man and without beast,' that is, in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem that are desolate, without man and without inhabitant and without beast [cf. Jer. 26:9; 34:22], (11) the voice of joy and the voice of gladness [cf. Isa. 35:10; 51:3, 11], the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride [contrast Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 25:10; and Rev. 18:21-23], the voice of those who say, 'Give thanks to the LORD [Yahweh] of hosts, For the LORD [Yahweh] is good, For His lovingkindness is everlasting' [cf. 1 Chron. 16:34; 2 Chron. 5:13; 7:3; Ezra 3:11; Psalms 100:4, 5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1; and 136:1]; and of those who bring a thank offering [cf. Lev. 7:12, 13; Psalms 107:22; 116:17; and Jer. 17:26] into the house of the LORD [Yahweh]. For I will restore the fortunes of the land as they were at first [See verse 7.]," says the LORD [Yahweh]. (12) Thus says the LORD [Yahweh] of hosts, "There will again be in this place which is waste, without man or beast [cf. Jer. 32:43; 33:10; 36:29; and 51:62], and in all its cities, a habitation of shepherds who rest their flocks [cf. Isa. 65:10; Jer. 31:12; and Zeph. 2:6, 7]. (13) In the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland, in the cities of the Negev, in the land of Benjamin, in the environs of Jerusalem and in the cities of Judah [cf. Jer. 17:26; 32:44], the flocks will again pass under the hands of the one who numbers them [Compare Lev. 27:32. "In ancient Israel and Judah, shepherds counted their sheep as they came to the fold at night" (Charles Lee Feinberg, "Expositor's Bible Commentary," Vol. 6, page 590.)]," says the LORD [Yahweh]. (14) "Behold, days are coming [cf. Jer. 23:5]," declares the LORD [Yahweh], "when I will fulfill the good word which I have spoken concerning the house of Israel and the house of Judah. [Compare Jer. 32:42. See verse 7.] (15) In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch of David [[See under Jer. 23:5, 6. The righteous Branch of David is the Lord Jesus Christ (cf., e.g., Isa. 32:1; Ezek. 34:23, 24; and Rev. 22:16). The primary time setting in view here is at the end of this age, when Christ comes to save the repentant end-time remnant of Israel/Judah and to establish righteousness on the earth (cf., e.g., Zech. 9:9, 10; 12:10-13:1; and 14:3-21).]] to spring forth; and He shall execute justice and righteousness on the earth. ["in the land" NIV. Compare, for example, Psalm 72:1-17; Isa. 9:1-7; and 11:1-16. (These passages are discussed verse-by-verse in my papers on Psalms and Isaiah.)] (16) In those days Judah will be saved and Jerusalem will dwell in safety ["Safety" and every other blessing will result from the fact that God's people are right with Him and living as He requires them to live (in divine order) through new-covenant salvation in Christ Jesus.]; and this is the name by which she [referring to Jerusalem; eventually new Jerusalem, which is the city of God and His saints; the city and the saints are righteous with the (imparted) righteousness of God (the triune God), who receives all the glory forever] will be called: the LORD [Yahweh] is our righteousness." [[See Jer. 23:6; 31:31-34. Compare, for example, Isa. 1:26; 53:11; Rom. 1:16, 17; 3:21, 22; 10:3, 4; 1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 5:21; and Phil. 3:9. (Most of these verses are discussed in my book "Holiness and Victory Over Sin.") Through the all-important atoning death of Christ Jesus and by the power of the all important indwelling Righteous and Holy Spirit, born-again believers are made righteous and holy with (they partake of) the righteousness and holiness of God. God (the triune God) is the only source of truth, righteousness, holiness, love, divine order, peace, and everything else that is good.]] (17) For thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel [Compare 2 Sam. 7:16; 1 Kings 2:4; 8:25; 1 Chron. 17:11-14; Psalm 89:19-37; Luke 1:32, 33; and Acts 2:22-36. From our perspective we can see that these prophetic words are fulfilled in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was born (in one sense) of the lineage of King David.]; (18) and the Levitical priests shall never lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, to burn grain offerings and to prepare sacrifices continually [cf. Num. 3:5-10; 25:12, 13; and Deut. 18:1, 2]." ' [[I'll include several paragraphs of comments here before going on to Jer. 33:19:
The New Testament shows that the old-covenant ministry of sin offerings came to an end with the once-for-all atoning death of the Lamb of God and the establishing of new-covenant salvation on the basis of His shed blood (cf., e.g., Heb. 7:1-10:39; 13:9-16). Christ is the great high priest of new-covenant believers (see Psalm 110:4; Zech. 6:13; and Heb. 7:1-10:39), and Christ's people (which includes all the members of God's true Israel) will reign with Him throughout the millennial kingdom and forever (cf. 2 Tim. 2:12; Rev. 2:26, 27; 3:21; 12:5; 20:4; and 22:5) and they will function as priests throughout the millennial kingdom and probably forever (cf. Ex. 19:6; Isa. 61:6; 66:21; 1 Pet. 2:5, 9; Rev. 1:6; 5:10; 20:6; and 22:3-5). ((I had a lengthy footnote, which continues to very near the end of the second paragraph: I briefly discussed Isa. 61:1-11 on pages 102, 103 of my paper titled "A Verse-by-Verse Study of Six Important Eschatological Chapters of the New Testament: 1 Corinthians 15; Matthew 24, 25; and Revelation 20-22," dated November 1998. That paper is split up into four parts on my internet site (Google to Karl Kemp Teaching). On the internet site see "More Regarding God's Salvation Plans for the Nations," page 10. I'll quote the relevant part of what I said there, True Israel will be "priests of the LORD [Yahweh]" (Isa. 61:6). Cf. Rev. 1:6; 5:10; and 20:6. I assume this priesthood will continue into the eternal state of Revelation chapters 21, 22. Revelation 22:5 shows that the reigning continues. The "double portion" given to (true) Israel (Isa. 61:7) fits the idea of (true) Israel being God's first-born son, with a privileged position (cf. Deut. 21:15-17; Ex. 4:22; Psalm 89:27; Jer. 31:9; and Heb. 12:23). Hebrews 12:23 speaks of the "church of the first-born who are enrolled in heaven." In the Greek "first-born" is plural; each member of God's true Israel has the privileged position of a first-born son.
On Isa. 66:21 see pages 109, 110 of my paper titled, "Verse-by-Verse Studies of Selected Eschatological Passages from the Book of Isaiah." I'll quote a few sentences from what I said on page 109, I assume that these words, "priests" and "Levites," like the sacrificial offerings of Isa. 19:21 [see under Isa. 19:19-21 in that paper]; 56:7; and 60:7, are not to be understood in a literal old-covenant sense. Words that were appropriate for old-covenant worship are being used here (as they often are) to describe worship that supersedes that dispensation. [I had a footnote here, In the same way, we can be confident that the nations won't be limited to the forms of transportation listed in Isa. 66:20. The Old Testament prophecies couldn't be expected to speak of things and concepts not understood yet, and for which there were no words.] All true Christians will be priests (Rev. 1:6; 5:10; and 20:6; cf. 1 Pet. 2:5, 9); all the members of God's true Israel will be priests (Isa. 61:6; cf. Ex. 19:6).")).
I'll quote a paragraph from what John L. Mackay says here ("Jeremiah," Vol. 2, page 280), "Indeed there can be little doubt that both the Davidic and the Levitical aspects of the promise are to be understood in the same way. Using language drawn from the past and present theocratic institutions, the LORD assured the people of Jeremiah's day [and all of Jeremiah's readers] of his continued provision for them of suitable rulers and of legitimate priests. With the greater light given by New Testament revelation it can be seen that just as it was indicated that the provision of rulers would culminate in the 'righteous Branch' (v. 15) who is the consummation of the Davidic promise and 'king of kings' (Rev. 19:6), so too it has become clear that the consummation of the priestly promise is also to be found in the Messiah. Furthermore, because of the union between Christ and his people, they are granted the same status he himself has. 'You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth' (Rev. 5:10)." (Now we'll go on to Jer. 33:19.)]]
(19) The word of the LORD [Yahweh] came to Jeremiah, saying, (20) 'Thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "If you can break My covenant for the day and My covenant for the night, so that day and night will not be at their appointed time, (21) then My covenant may also be broken with David My servant [[I'll quote a few sentences from what John L. Mackay says here on page 281, "David is called 'my servant' twenty-one times in the Old Testament, particularly in Samuel, Kings and Psalms. It is used in Jeremiah only in this chapter (vv. 21, 22, 26). The phrase 'my servant' was used of Abraham (Gen. 26:24) and Moses (Num. 12:7), where it denoted their privileged relationship with the LORD, and the place they occupied in his purposes (see also 25:9)." The primary reason I wanted to quote what Mackay said regarding the word servant here is to refer the reader to the glorious fact that all the glorified members of God's true Israel, who are reigning with Him in a never-ending reign in new Jerusalem, are called His "bond-servants" NASB; "servants" NKJV in Rev. 22:3.
I'll quote Rev. 22:3-5, "There will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God [the Father] and of the Lamb [God the Son] will be in it [in new Jerusalem], and His bond-servants [that's us, all the members of God's true Israel] will serve Him; they will see His face, and His name will be on their foreheads. And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign forever and ever."]] so that he will not have a son to reign on his throne [cf. 2 Chron. 7:18], and with the Levitical priests, My ministers. (22) As the host of heaven cannot be counted [cf. Gen. 15:5; Jer. 31:37] and the sand of the sea cannot be measured [cf. Gen. 22:17], so I will multiply the descendants of David My servant and the Levites who minister to Me." ' [Compare Jer. 33:25, 26.] (23) And the word of the LORD [Yahweh] came to Jeremiah, saying, (24) 'Have you [This "you" is masculine singular, referring to Jeremiah.] not observed what this people have spoken, saying, "The two families which the LORD chose, He has rejected them"? [The "two families" are the two kingdoms (Israel/Ephraim and Judah) into which the one nation (Israel) had split after the death of King Solomon (cf. 1 Kings 11:43-12:24). The people were saying that God had rejected both kingdoms, but these verses (Jer. 33:24, 25) and many of the prophetic verses we have already looked at from the book of Jeremiah (and many other prophetic verses in the Old Testament) show that God has promised to not only save the remnants of both kingdoms but also to reunite them into one kingdom (cf. Deut. 30:1-10; Jer. 3:15-18; 23:1-8; Jer. 30:1-31:40; 32:36-44; 33:1-26; and Ezek. 37:1-28).] Thus they despise My people, no longer are they as a nation in their sight. [They were despising God's people (Israel/Judah) by saying that God had totally rejected them and that He had no future for them, even though He had made many promises to them for their future salvation and exaltation. Also, God always continued to take care of the individual Israelites who were faithful to Him (the faithful remnant that included people like Jeremiah).] (25) 'Thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "If My covenant for day and night stand not, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have not established [cf. Gen. 8:22; Jer. 31:35, 36; 33:20, 21; and Psalm 74:16, 17], (26) then I would reject the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, not taking from his descendants rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob [see verses 14-22]. But I will restore their fortunes [the fortunes of Israel and Judah (see, for example, verses 7, 14); on "restore their fortunes," see Jer. 29:14; 30:3, 18; 31:23; 32:44; 33:7, 11; Ezek. 39:25; Joel 3:1; Amos 9:14; and Zeph. 3:20] and will have mercy on them." ' "
We will finish these excerpts from my paper "Verse-by-Verse Studies of Selected Prophetic Passages from the Book of Jeremiah" in Part 6.