We will continue the verse-by-verse study of Jeremiah chapter 30, starting at verse 12, then we will go on to a verse-by-verse study of Jeremiah chapter 31.
I want to repeat what I said at the beginning of Jeremiah chapter 30: This chapter is very important, so I didn't want to skip it here, but the format used here (without my being able to use bold lettering for the verses that we are studying, or footnotes, italics, etc. may make it a little difficult to read for some readers. For one thing I had quite a few footnotes in the original paper, and I get into a lot of details. If you prefer you can go to my website and read this chapter (or the entire paper) in a format where I was able to use bold lettering, footnotes, italics, etc.
I'll quote from the "New American Standard Bible," 1995 edition, unless otherwise noted. Frequently I'll make comments in the middle of quotations in brackets [ ] or [[ ]] to make them more obvious.
(12) 'For thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "Your wound [see verses 14, 17] is incurable And your injury [see verse 15] is serious. [Verses 13-15 show that this "wound" and "injury" speak of the judgments God has inflicted on Israel and Judah as a penalty for persistent sin without meaningful repentance. Eventually, however, the end-time remnant of Israel/Judah will repent and submit to God and His new-covenant salvation in and through Christ Jesus, and they will be healed (see verse 17).] (13) There is no one to plead your cause; No healing for your sore, No recovery for you. [Compare Jer. 14:19. The healing/recovery cannot come in any full sense until the remnant of Israel/Judah repent and are healed of their rebellion by God's new-covenant salvation.]; (14) All your lovers have forgotten you [[The "lovers" here are the nations which Judah/Israel had looked to, and had improper relationships with, instead of God. And, significantly, these relationships with the nations often included worshipping the gods of the nations, instead of being faithful to God. As this verse shows, their lovers forgot them because they became undesirable after God had judged them intensely because their iniquity was great and their sins numerous. After Judah/Israel lost their fame, wealth, etc., they were no longer desirable to the nations.]], They do not seek you; For I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy [cf. Lam. 2:1-10], With the punishment of a cruel one ["I have struck you as an enemy would, and punished you as would the cruel" NIV. Many of God's judgments against Israel/Judah came through cruel rulers of cruel nations, including the kings of Assyria and Babylon, and Antichrist is yet to come.], Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous. (15) Why do you cry out over your injury? Your pain is incurable. Because your iniquity is great And your sins are numerous, I have done these things to you. [[One key point that God makes in this verse, as He speaks to Israel/Judah, is that He is the One who has judged them severely. It wasn't the nations (or anyone or anything else, including blind chance) that had caused their serious wounds and injuries. He wanted to make it clear that He was the One who had been judging them (often judging them through the nations) for their great iniquity and sins. As the next verse shows, God can deal with the nations who had been devouring Israel/Judah at any time, and He will deal with them after Israel/Judah finally repents in the last days and is saved through new-covenant salvation.]] (16) Therefore all who devour you [cf. Jer. 10:25] will be devoured; And all your adversaries, every one of them, will go into captivity; And those who plunder you will be for plunder, And all who prey upon you I will give for prey. [See under verse 15.] (17) For I will restore you to health And I will heal you of your wounds [cf. Jer. 33:6; Hos. 6:1]," declares the LORD [Yahweh], "Because they have called you an outcast, saying: 'It is Zion; no one cares ["Lit. is seeking" (margin of NASB)] for her.' " [See under verse 15, and see verses 3, 7-11, 18-22. God always has cared for Zion (Israel/Judah - true Israel), and He will demonstrate this care in a very substantial way when He saves Zion at the end of this age. However, when Israel/Judah was being severely chastened by God it looked as if He didn't care for Zion.] (18) 'Thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "Behold, I will restore the fortunes of the tents of Jacob [cf. Jer. 30:3; 31:23] And have compassion on his [Jacob's] dwelling places [cf. Psalm 102:13; Isa. 60:10; and Zech. 1:12]; And the city will be rebuilt on its ruin [[((I had a footnote: "The word 'ruins' [The NIV translates "ruins"] is the well-known term tel ('tell,' 'mound,' 'heap'), now used by Arabs for the ruined mounds of Palestine" (Charles Feinberg, "Expositor's Bible Commentary," Vol. 6, page 564). In a footnote Feinberg adds, "The Hebrew tel (tel, 'mound' of a ruined city) corresponds to the Arabic tell. New towns in the Near East were frequently built on the ruins of the previous settlements. Notice how tel (tell) formed a part of place names: Tel Aviv (Ezek 3:15), Tell el-Amarna (in Egypt), Tel Assar (2 Kings 19:12), Tel Melah, and Tel Harsha (Ezra 2:59).")) Compare Jer. 31:4-6, 12, 23, 38-40. Jerusalem was rebuilt after the return from the Babylonian exile (as were many other cities), but this prophecy looks (at least for the most part) to the end of this age when Jerusalem will be rebuilt, exalted, and glorified after God's end-time judgment of the world (cf., e.g., Isa. 2:2-4; 60:1-22; and Zech. 14:8-21).]], And the palace will stand on its rightful place. [Apparently the "palace" is the dwelling place of the "ruler/leader" mentioned in verse 21. As we have seen, the Lord Jesus Christ is that ruler (the King-High Priest).] (19) From them will proceed thanksgiving And the voice of those who celebrate [cf. Isa. 12:1; 35:10; 51:3, 11; Jer. 31:4; and Zeph. 3:14]; And I will multiply them ["I will add to their numbers" NIV]; and they will not be diminished [[For one thing, God will add large number of Gentiles to His true Israel (the Gentiles who become part of true Israel by salvation through faith in Christ Jesus). (I had a footnote: Apparently many Gentiles will answer the gospel call after the mid-week rapture; they will become part of God's true Israel; they will become part of the elect end-time remnant of God's true Israel.)]]; I will also honor them and they will not be insignificant. [These verses speak of the people of Israel/Judah after they have been saved by the Lord Jesus Christ in the last days.] (20) Their children also will be as formerly [[It is probably better (with J. A. Thompson and the NEB, for example) to translate "sons" instead of 'children" here. Apparently children are not specifically mentioned in this verse. ((I had a footnote: Compare Isa. 60:22; 65:17-22; and Jer. 33:22. For the record (based on subsequent prophecy, especially the all-important book of Revelation), I believe all the members of God's true Israel will be glorified by the time the millennial kingdom begins. (Start with "A Study of Isaiah 65:17-25" at the end of the chapter dealing with Isaiah chapter 25 in my paper titled, "Verse-by-Verse Studies of Selected Eschatological Prophecies from the Book of Isaiah.") If that is true, the people of God's true Israel won't be having children in the millennial kingdom (cf. Luke 20:34-36), but (apparently) the remnant of the nations (e.g., Rev. 20:3) will continue to have children throughout the millennium.)) These verses are poetry in the Hebrew as indicated in the format of the NASB; NIV, for example, and the two lines "their sons also will be as formerly" and "And their congregation shall be established before Me" are parallel statements (with "their sons" being equivalent to 'their congregation'); parallel statements are very common in Hebrew poetry.]], And their congregation shall be established before Me [cf. Isa. 54:14]; And I will punish all their oppressors [cf. Jer. 30:11, 16, 23, 24]. (21) Their leader [the Lord Jesus Christ] shall be one of them [See verse 9.], And their ruler ["their ruler" is the equivalent of "their leader"] shall come forth from their midst; And I will bring him [Him] near and he [He] shall approach Me; For who would dare to risk his life to approach Me?' declares the LORD [Yahweh]. [From our new-covenant perspective, we can see that this particular Ruler has a right to approach God the Father like no other person in the universe, being deity Himself, God the Son, who became the God-man, the Lamb of God, the only Savior from sin and death, and our great High-Priest.] (22) You shall be My people, And I will be your God." ' [Compare Ex. 6:7; 19:5, 6; Jer. 32:38; Ezek. 36:28; Hos. 2:23; Zech. 13:9; and Rev. 22:3-5.] (23) Behold, the tempest of the LORD [Yahweh]! Wrath has gone forth, A sweeping tempest; It will burst on the head of the wicked. [Compare Jer. 23:19, 20; 25:30-38. God's wrath will go forth in His end-time judgment of the world. All the people (including the people of Israel/Judah) who are committed to wickedness (the unrepentant) will be removed by judgment.] (24) The fierce anger of the LORD [Yahweh] will not turn back [cf. Jer. 4:8] Until He has performed and until He has accomplished The intent of His heart; In the latter days you will understand this." [Compare Jer. 23:20. In the latter days, God's people will be able to fully understand His plans to save and to judge, because these things will have fully come to pass (in accordance with His prophetic word).]
JEREMIAH CHAPTER 31
I'll quote the introductory paragraph that F. B. Huey has for Jeremiah chapter 31. "The main theme of this chapter is that a restored and reunited Israel [including Israel/Ephraim and Judah] would enjoy a new covenant relationship with God. The people would be spiritually as well as physically restored. The theme is expressed succinctly in the first verse, which serves as an introduction to the chapter. Verses 2-22 speak of the future of the Northern Kingdom. Verses 23-26 anticipate the Southern Kingdom's restoration. Verses 27-40 describe coming days of blessing for both Israel and Judah" ("Jeremiah, Lamentations" [Broadman Press, 1993], page 268). I'll also quote a sentence from what Huey says under verses 7-9 (page 272), "This was to be a new exodus on a grander scale in which God would judge the nations, deliver and regather his people from the ends of the earth, and shepherd them through the wilderness into the promised land of rest.' Huey has a footnote here, "R. E. Watts, 'Consolation or Confrontation? Isaiah 40-55 and the Delay of the New Exodus,' TB 41 (1990); 32-35. Cf. Isa. 27:12, 13; 35:1-19; 43:14-21; 48:20-21; 51:9-11; 52:11-12; Jer. 23:7; Hos. 2:14-23; 11:5-11; Amos 9:7-15."
I'll also quote part of what C. F. Keil says here. " 'All the families of Israel' [verse 1] are the families of the whole twelve tribes - of the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, separated since the death of Solomon. After this announcement of deliverance for the whole of Israel, the address turns first to Israel of the ten tribes, and continues to treat longest of them, 'because, judging from appearances, they seem irrecoverably lost - for ever rejected by the Lord' (Hengstenberg)" ("Commentary on the Old Testament," Vol. 8 [Eerdmans, 1978 reprint], page 16).
" 'At that time,' declares the LORD [Yahweh], 'I will be the God of all the families of Israel [referring to Judah and Israel/Ephraim], and they shall be My people [cf., e.g., Jer. 30:22; Ezek. 37:15-28].' [[The words "at that time" refer to the time at the end of this age spoken of in the last verses of Jeremiah chapter 30. (I had a footnote: Some Hebrew manuscripts have this verse (Jer. 31:1) as the last verse of chapter 30.) God will have reduced the people of Israel/Ephraim and Judah to a repentant remnant (through a powerful end-time shaking that will begin about the time of Antichrist's abomination of desolation; through the ministry of the two prophets of Revelation chapter 11; etc.), and will have saved them (and He will have judged the nations and left a repentant remnant of the nations too). The time setting here is about the end of Daniel's 70th week (Dan. 9:27). I should point out that verse 1 is prose in the Hebrew and verses 2-22 are poetry, as indicated by the format of the NASB; NIV, for example.]] (2) Thus says the LORD [Yahweh], 'The people who survived the sword [Compare "the remnant of Israel" in verse 7.] Found grace in the wilderness ["will find favor in the desert" NIV] - Israel, when it went to find its rest [cf. Jer. 16:14, 15; 23:7, 8; and Hos. 2:14, 15].' [["The people who survived the sword" is the end-time remnant of Israel scattered across the earth. (Apparently the past tenses of verses 2, 3 are prophetic perfects in the Hebrew.) They are "in the wilderness" on their way to find rest in the land of Israel, building on the fact that Israel was "in the wilderness" after the exodus from Egypt on their way to the promised land.
Coming just after Jer. 30:1-31:1 and with Jer. 31:27-34, and considering verses like Jer. 3:18; 23:1-8; and 50:4, 5 (all five passages just cited speak of God's saving all Israel [Israel/Ephraim and Judah] at the end of this age), I expect "Israel" to refer to all Israel here in verse 2, but I have to agree with most of the commentators that verses 2-22 deal (at least for the most part) with God's salvation of the northern kingdom (sometimes called Ephraim/Israel). (I had a footnote: Jeremiah 3:12-14 deal with God's salvation of the end-time remnant of the northern kingdom.) Verses 4-6 (or at least verses 5, 6) are clearly addressed to (the end-time remnant) of the northern kingdom, and the name "Ephraim" (which is clearly associated with the northern kingdom) is used in verses 6, 9, 18, and 20. Furthermore, the fact that Judah (the southern kingdom) is given separate treatment in verses 23-25 further substantiates the idea that verses 2-22 deal (at least for the most part) with the northern kingdom. (I had a footnote: If it weren't for the emphasis on the northern kingdom [Israel/Ephraim] in verses 2-22 and the use of Ephraim in verse 9, verses 7-17 would fit better with God's end-time salvation of the entire nation [Israel/Ephraim and Judah].) "Zion" (a name associated with the temple mount and Jerusalem) is mentioned in verses 6, 12. It seems to be taken for granted that Judah will have been saved and God will be dwelling in Jerusalem when the end-time remnant of the northern kingdom come to Jerusalem to worship God, etc.
It was reasonable to put all the emphasis on God's salvation of the northern kingdom in verses 2-22. The people of that kingdom (sometimes called Israel/Ephraim) departed from God first and were carried into captivity about a hundred years before Jeremiah's ministry began, while Judah still existed as a nation dwelling in their land throughout most of Jeremiah's ministry (before Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed by the Babylonians in 587/586 BC). Furthermore, the people of the northern kingdom did not return from captivity (at least not in substantial numbers) while many of the people of the southern kingdom did return from the Babylonian captivity after seventy years (as God had prophesied that they would). Then too, the northern kingdom embraced ten tribes while the southern kingdom embraced only two tribes, Judah and Benjamin (cf., e.g., 1 Kings 11:29-36; 12:21).]] (3) The LORD [Yahweh] appeared to him ["Lit. me" (margin of NASB); the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) has "to him"] from afar [probably meaning from Zion; cf. Jer. 30:10], saying, 'I have loved you with an everlasting love [cf. Deut. 4:37; 7:8; and Mal. 1:2]; Therefore I have drawn you with lovingkindness [Compare Psalm 25:6; Jer. 9:24; 32:18; Lam. 3:32; and Dan. 9:4. God draws them to Himself to save them spiritually and to take them back to the land of Israel/Judah (cf., e.g., Jer. 30:3).] (4) Again I will build you and you will be rebuilt [cf. Jer. 24:6; 30:18; and 33:7], O virgin of Israel! Again you will take up your tambourines [Compare Ex. 15:20; 1 Sam. 18:6. J. A. Thompson translates, "Once again you will adorn yourselves with timbrels," and regarding timbrels, he says, "adornment with small pieces that tinkled in the dance was common all over the Near East in ancient times and still is today" ("Book of Jeremiah," page 567.], And go forth to the dances of the merrymakers [cf. Jer. 30:19]. (5) Again you will plant vineyards [cf. Isa. 65:21; Ezek. 28:26; and Amos 9:14] On the hills of Samaria [[The "hills of Samaria" here and the "hills of Ephraim" of verse 6 refer to land of the northern kingdom. This viewpoint is confirmed by the fact that the last words of verse 6 speak of the people living in the north going up to Zion (they go up to Zion/Jerusalem because the city is some 2,500 feet above sea level; cf. "height of Zion" [Jer. 31:12]) to Yahweh, their God. The fact that they go up to Zion shows that Judah will have been saved through the Lord Jesus Christ too and that Israel/Ephraim and Judah will have been reunited (cf., e.g., Jer. 30:3, 7-9, 18-22; 31:1).]]; The planters will plant And will enjoy them. [In the past God's people would often plant but others would end up enjoying the produce.] (6) For there will be a day when watchmen [I had a footnote: "the watchmen who were posted on the mountains, that they might observe and give notice of the first appearance of the crescent of the moon after new-moon, so that the festival of the new-moon and the feasts connected with it might be fixed..." (C. F. Keil, "Commentary on the Old Testament," Vol. 8 [Eerdmans,1978 reprint], page 19).] On the hills of Ephraim call out, "Arise, and let us go up to Zion, To the LORD [Yahweh] our God." ' [See under verse 5.] (7) For thus says the LORD [Yahweh], 'Sing aloud with gladness for Jacob [The names Jacob and Israel (God changed Jacob's name to Israel) can be confusing in that both names can be used for the entire nation (in that Jacob/Israel was the father of all twelve tribes of the nation), and they can also be used of the northern kingdom, as they (apparently) are in this verse.], And shout among [The Hebrew preposition "b" translated "among" by the NASB here could also be translated "for" (NIV, NRSV); the Hebrew preposition "l" was translated "for" earlier in this verse.] the chief [or, head] of the nations [[(This double bracket continues for several paragraphs.) Compare Amos 6:1. The chief/foremost of the nations (from God's point of view) is Israel/Jacob, referring to the whole nation (cf. Deut. 26:19), but most agree that the northern kingdom is spoken of here. Note that Ephraim (referring to the northern kingdom) is called God's "firstborn" in verse 9 (being God's firstborn nation and being the chief/head of the nations is comparable in meaning) - see under verse 9.
But who is God speaking to here in verse 7? Who is He telling to "sing aloud with gladness for Jacob" and "to shout among (or, for) the chief of the nations"? It isn't all that obvious, but I assume God is speaking to the nations (or, more precisely, to the end-time remnant of the nations, not including Israel/Judah) that He has left after His end-time judgment of the world. Note that He speaks to the nations (the end-time remnant of the nations) in verse 10 and tells them to declare Israel's salvation "in the coastlands afar off."
God appointed Jeremiah a prophet to the nations (see Jer. 1:5, 10) and he (like Isaiah the prophet) frequently spoke to the nations and/or prophesied about the nations in his prophecies (cf., e.g., Jer. 3:17; 4:1, 2; 6:18-21 [In Jer. 6:18-21 God called the nations His "congregation" and spoke to them of His bringing disaster on Judah because of their persistent sinfulness; He also called the nations His "congregation" in Psalm 82:1; cf. Psalm 7:7]; 12:14-17; 16:19-21; 18:7-10; 25:8-38; 27:1-11; 33:9; 36:2; 46:1-51:64.)
Why would the remnant of the nations rejoice because God (judges the world and) saves the repentant end-time remnant of Ephraim (and Judah)? Because at that time the end-time remnant of the nations will realize that the God of Israel/Judah (the God of true Israel) is God and that He has removed the unrepentant rebels (who were committed to continue in rebellion forever) from the earth and is offering salvation to the repentant remnant of the nations too. There are many prophetic verses that speak of God's saving the repentant end-time remnant of the nations after His end-time judgment of the world and of their having a place in His millennial kingdom. ((See, for example, Psalm 47; Isa. 2:2-4; Jer. 3:17; 4:1, 2; 16:19-21; 33:9; 48:47; 49:6 [God calls Ammon a "backsliding daughter" in 49:4], 11, 38, 39; 50:2-8 [There is widespread agreement that Jer. 50:8 (cf. Jer. 51:9) shows that the peoples of other nations will be set free too (not just Israel/Judah) when God judges Babylon/the world and that His people will be able to lead them (eventually lead them to God). Verses like Jer. 50:4, 5, 20 demonstrate that God's end-time judgment of the world is in view.], Zech. 2:11; 8:22, 23; 9:10; and 14:16. [I had a footnote: Prophecies like Isa. 2:2-4 (and Mic. 4:1-5) had been given long before the days of Jeremiah. Three of my papers are especially relevant to the topic of God's salvation of the end-time remnant of the nations: "Verse-by-Verse Studies of Selected Eschatological Psalms"; "Verse-by-Verse Studies of Selected Eschatological Prophecies from the Book of Isaiah" and "A Verse-by-Verse Study of Six Important Eschatological Chapters of the New Testament: 1 Corinthians 15; Matthew 24, 25; and Revelation 20-22; this Paper Deals Extensively with the Topic of God's Ultimate Salvation Plans for the Nations." This last paper is split up into several parts on my internet site (Google to Karl Kemp Teaching).])) In fact, quite a few prophetic verses even speak of the repentant end-time remnant of the nations bringing the scattered sons of Israel/Judah to God at Jerusalem after His end-time judgment of the world (cf. Isa. 14:1, 2; 49:22 [cf. Isa. 11:10-12]; 60:4-9; 66:20-23; and Zeph. 3:8-11).]]; Proclaim, give praise and say, "O LORD [Yahweh], save Your people [[I prefer the translation, "The LORD [Yahweh] has saved His people." The "Amplified Bible" has, 'The Lord has saved His people"; the NEB; RSV have, "The LORD has saved his people"; J. A. Thompson and the "Jerusalem Bible" have, "Yahweh has saved his people"; and the NAB has, "The LORD has delivered his people." ((I had a footnote: J. A. Thompson ("Book of Jeremiah," page 568) has a footnote for the word "his," "MT [The Hebrew Masoretic Text] has 'your,' LXX [the Septuagint] and Targ. [Jewish Targum] 'his.' " Gerald Keown, Pamela Scalise, and Thomas Smothers ("Jeremiah 26-52" [Word, Inc., 1995], page 11) have two footnotes regarding the text here. The first footnote mentions the LXX and Targum readings (that were mentioned by Thompson), then says, "Therefore, BHS ["Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia"] recommends revocalizing to the perfect...'saved' [instead of the imperative "save"]. ...." The second footnote reads, "BHS follows LXX and Tg [Targum] again, recommending ... 'his people,' as the object of the perfect [Hebrew] verb."))]], The remnant of Israel." [This is the repentant end-time remnant of the northern kingdom that is scattered across the earth (see verse 8). On God's saving the end-time remnant of Israel/Judah, compare, for example, Isa. 11:11, 16; 10:20-23; Jer. 3:14-18; 23:3; 30:3, 11; 50:20; Mic. 2:12, 13; and Rom. 9:27-29; 11:25-27.] (8) Behold, I am bringing them from the north country [cf., e.g., Jer. 3:18], And I will gather them from the remote parts of the earth [Compare, for example, Deut. 30:1-5; Jer. 23:8; 30:3; and Ezek. 34:13.], Among them the blind [cf. Isa. 42:16] and the lame [cf. Mic. 4:6], The woman with child and she who is in labor with child, together; A great company, they will return here [to the land of Israel/Judah]. (9) With weeping [tears of repentance and joy] they will come [cf. Jer. 50:4], And by supplication I will lead them ["they will pray as I bring them back" NIV]; I will make them walk by streams of waters [cf. Isa. 35:6-8; 43:20; and 49:10], On a straight path in which they will not stumble [cf. Isa. 63:13]; For I am a father to Israel, And Ephraim is My firstborn.' [[See on "the chief [head] of the nations" under verse 7. Compare Deut. 7:6; 32:6-9; Isa. 64:8; Jer. 3:4, 19; and Hos. 11:1. Exodus 4:22 says, "Then you shall say to Pharaoh, 'thus says the LORD [Yahweh], "Israel is My firstborn." ' " It is clear that "Israel" refers to all the tribes of Israel/Ephraim and Judah in Ex. 4:22, but it seems that both names, "Israel" and "Ephraim," are used here in Jer. 31:9 of the northern kingdom. The northern kingdom (with its ten tribes) was an important part of the people of God. The point here is that Israel/Ephraim is God's "firstborn son" in that is has a privileged position with respect to all the other nations, not that it was born or existed before all the other nations. And, significantly, Israel/Ephraim was not God's firstborn son over, or apart from, Judah. ((I had a footnote: There is a sense in which Ephraim could be called the preeminent tribe of the twelve tribes (or thirteen if you include the tribe of Levi), but I don't believe that sense is relevant here in Jer. 31:9. Judah became the dominant tribe. I'll quote 1 Chron. 5:1, 2, "Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel [Reuben was the firstborn son of the twelve sons of Jacob/Israel (see Gen. 29:31, 32)] (for he was the firstborn, but because he defiled his father's bed [Gen. 35:22; 49:4], his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph [Joseph's firstborn son was Manasseh, then Ephraim was born] the son of Israel; so that he [Reuben] is not enrolled in the genealogy according to the birthright. Though Judah prevailed over his brothers, and from him came the leader, yet the birthright belonged to Joseph [and therefore to his son Ephraim])." Genesis 48:13-20 explain how Ephraim (the second-born son of Joseph) came to be exalted over Manasseh, the firstborn son of Joseph.))]] (10) Hear the word of the LORD [Yahweh], O nations [See under verse 7.], And declare in the coastlands afar off [cf. Isa. 66:19], And say, 'He who scattered Israel [the northern kingdom] will gather him And keep him as a shepherd keeps his flock [cf. Isa. 40:11; Jer. 3:16-18; 16:14, 15; 23:7, 8; 31:8; 50:19; Ezek. 34:11-16, 23, 31; and Mic. 2:12; 5:4].' (11) For the LORD [Yahweh] has ransomed Jacob [the northern kingdom] And redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than he. [[Compare Isa. 43:1; 44:23; 48:20; Jer. 15:21; and 50:34. God redeems Jacob/Israel/Ephraim through the Lord Jesus Christ (based on His atoning death). God redeems him [Jacob/Israel/Ephraim (ultimately all the members of God's true Israel) from the hand of him [the ruler(s) of the kingdom(s) of this world (including the devil, the evil angels, and Antichrist) who was stronger than he (stronger than Jacob/Israel/Ephraim; cf. Psalms 18:17; 142:6).]] (12) 'They [the repentant and saved end-time remnant of the northern kingdom] will come and shout for joy on the height of Zion [cf. Isa. 2:2; Jer. 3:14-18; 31:6; Ezek. 17:23; and Mic. 4:1], And they will be radiant over the bounty of the LORD [Yahweh] - Over the grain and the new wine and the oil [cf. Jer. 31:5; Hos. 2:22; and Joel 3:18], And over the young of the flock and the herd [cf. Jer. 31:24; 33:12, 13]; And their life will be like a watered garden [cf. Isa. 58:11], And they will never languish again. [Compare Isa. 35:10; 60:20. The last words of this verse confirm that God's saving of (the remnant of) Israel/Ephraim (and of Judah) at the end of this age is in view, which will eventually culminate in the eternal state of eternal glory with its new heaven, new earth, and new Jerusalem. The scene here shows that the people of Zion, Jerusalem, Judah (the southern kingdom) will have been saved at this time.] (13) Then the virgin will rejoice in the dance [cf. Psalm 30:11], And the young men and the old, together, For I will turn their mourning into joy And will comfort them and give them joy for their sorrow [cf. Isa. 51:11; 61:3; 65:19]. (14) I will fill the soul of the priests with abundance, And My people will be satisfied with My goodness [cf. Jer. 50:19],' declares the LORD [Yahweh].
We'll continue with this verse-by-verse study of Jeremiah chapter 31 with verse 15 in Part 4.