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Overview of the Old Testament Messianic references in the Gospels
by Robert Randle
09/26/09
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The book of LUKE has more events than any of the other gospels but MATTHEW appears to be the source, especially prophesies from the Old Testament, which are included in the other narratives. The book of MATTHEW will be used in this study as the basis for comparison to see which Old Testament citations taken from there are listed in the other books. The numbering system is based upon MATTHEW with 1-34 separate prophesies, and the list increases from there.

GOSPEL OF MATTHEW

1: 22-23 [(1) Isaiah 7: 14]

2: 5b-6 [(2) Micah 5: 2]

2: 17 [(3) Isaiah 31: 15]

3: 3 [(4) Isaiah 40: 3]

4: 14-16 [(5) Isaiah 9: 1-2; (6) Isaiah 42: 7]

8: 17 [(7) Isaiah 53: 4]

11: 5 [(8) Isaiah 29: 18; (9) Isaiah 35: 4-6; (10) Isaiah 61: 1]

11: 10 [(11) Malachi 3: 1]

12: 17-21 [(12) Isaiah 42: 1-4]

13: 14-15 [(13) Isaiah 6: 9-10]

13: 35 [(14) Psalms 78: 2]

15: 7-9 [(15) Ezekiel 33: 31b; (16) Isaiah 29: 13]

21: 4-5 [(17) Zechariah 9: 9]

21: 9 [(18) Psalms 118: 26a]

21: 42 [(19) Psalms 118: 22-23]

26: 31, 56 [(20) Zechariah 13: 7]

26: 62-63a [(21) Isaiah 53: 7]

26: 64 [(22) Daniel 7: 13]

26: 67 [(23) Isaiah 50: 6; (24) Isaiah 53: 5]

27: 9 [(25) Zechariah 11: 12b-13] Spoken by Jeremiah the Prophet-NOT!!

27: 12-14 [(21) Isaiah 53: 7]

27: 29 [(26) Psalms 69: 19-20; (24) Isaiah 53: 5]

27: 30 [(23) Isaiah 50: 6; (27) Isaiah 52: 14; (28) Micah 5: 1]

27: 31 [(21) Isaiah 53: 7]

27: 34 [(29) Psalms 69: 21]

27: 35 [(30) Psalms 22: 18]

27: 38 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a, 12b]

27: 43 [(32) Psalms 22: 8]

27: 46 [(33) Psalms 22: 1]

27: 48 [(29) Psalms 69: 21]

27: 55-56 [(34) Psalms 38: 11]

27: 60 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a]

GOSPEL OF MARK

1: 2 [(11) Malachi 3: 1] (found in Matthew 11: 10).

1: 3 [(4) Isaiah 40: 3] (found in Matthew 3: 3).

4: 12 [(13) Isaiah 6: 9-10] (found in Matthew 13: 14-15); “Lest they should turn and their sins be forgiven them.”- NOT RECORDED IN ISAIAH!!

7: 6-7 [(15) Ezekiel 33: 31b; (16) Isaiah 29: 13] (found in Matthew 15: 7-9).

11: 9-10 [(18) Psalms 118: 25-26a; (35) Psalms 148: 1] (found in Matthew 21: 9).

11: 17 [(36) Isaiah 56: 7; (37) Jeremiah 7: 11]

12: 10-11 [(38) Psalms 118: 22-23]

12: 35-37a [(39) Psalms 110: 1]

14: 27 [(20) Zechariah 13: 7] (found in Matthew 26: 31).

14: 60-61 [(21) Isaiah 53: 7] (found in Matthew 26: 62-63a).

14: 62 [(22) Daniel 7: 13] (found in Matthew 26: 64).

14: 65 [(23) Isaiah 50: 6; (27) Isaiah 52: 14; (28) Micah 5: 1] (found in Matthew 27: 30).

15: 4-5 [(23) Isaiah 53: 7] (found in Matthew 26: 62-63a; Matthew 27: 12-14).

15: 19 [(23) Isaiah 50: 6; (27) Isaiah 52: 14; (24) Isaiah 53: 5] (found in Matthew 26: 67; Matthew 27: 30).

15: 23, 36 [(29) Psalms 69: 21]

15: 24 [(30) Psalms 22: 18]

15: 28 [(40) Isaiah 53: 12]

15: 29a [(41) Psalms 22: 6-7; (42) Psalms 69: 7; (43) Psalms 109: 25]

15: 34 [(33) Psalms 22: 1] (found in Matthew 27: 46).

15: 36a [(29) Psalms 69: 21] (found in Matthew 27: 48).

15: 40-41 [(44) Psalms 38: 11]

15: 46 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a] (found in Matthew 27: 60). “And they made His grave with the rich at His death. . .

GOSPEL OF LUKE

3: 4-6 [(4) Isaiah 40: 3; (45) Isaiah 52: 10b] (found in Matthew 3: 3).

4: 17-19 [(10) Isaiah 61: 1-2] (found in Matthew 11: 5).

7: 27 [(4) Isaiah 40: 3; (11) Malachi 3: 1] (found in Matthew 3: 3; Matthew 11: 10).

8: 9-10 [(13) Isaiah 6: 9-10] (found in Matthew 13: 14-15).

13: 35 [(18) Psalms 118: 26] (found in Matthew 21: 9).

19: 38 [(18) Psalms 118: 26a]

19: 46 [(36) Isaiah 56: 7; (37 Jeremiah 7: 11] (found in Mark 11: 17).

20: 17 [(38) Psalms 118: 22] (found in Mark 12: 10).

20: 18 [(46) Isaiah 8: 14-15]

20: 41-44 [(39) Psalms 110: 1] (found in Mark 12: 35).

22: 37 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a, 12b (found in Matthew 27: 38).

22: 63 [(47) Psalms 69: 1, 4, 7-9; (23) Isaiah 50: 6] (found in Matthew 26: 67).

22: 69 [(22) Daniel 7: 14] (found in Matthew 26: 64).

23: 32 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a, 12] (found in Matthew 27: 38).

23: 35 [(48) Psalms 22: 17]

23: 46 [(49) Psalms 31: 5]

23: 49 [(44) Psalms 38: 11] (found in Mark 15: 40-41).

23: 53 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9a] (found in Matthew 27: 60).

GOSPEL OF JOHN

1: 23 [(4) Isaiah 40: 3] (found in Matthew 3: 3).

7: 37 [(50) Isaiah 55: 1]

7: 38 [(51) Isaiah 12: 3; (52) Isaiah 44: 3; (50) Isaiah 55: 1]

7: 39 [(52) Isaiah 44: 3]

7: 41-42 [(2) Micah 5: 2] (found in Matthew 2: 5b-6).

12: 13 [(18) Psalms 118: 25-26] (found in Matthew 21: 9).

12: 14-15 [(17) Zechariah 9: 9] (found in Matthew 21: 4-5).

12: 34 [(53) Psalms 89: 36; (54) Isaiah 9: 6-7; (55) Micah 4: 7]

12: 38 [(56) Isaiah 53: 1]

12: 39-40 [(13) Isaiah 6: 9-10] (found in Matthew 13: 14-15).

16: 32 [(20) Zechariah 13: 7b] (found in Matthew 26: 31).

19: 3 [(23) Isaiah 50: 6b] (found in Matthew 26: 67)

19: 7-9 [(21) Isaiah 53: 7] (found in Matthew 27: 31).

19: 18 [(40) Isaiah 53: 12b] (found in Mark 15: 28; Luke 22: 37).

19: 24 [(30) Psalms 22: 18] (found in Matthew 27: 35).

19: 28-30 [(57) Psalms 22: 15]

19: 36 [(58) Psalms 34: 20]

19: 37 [(59) Zechariah 12: 10b; Zechariah 13: 6]

19: 41 [(31) Isaiah 53: 9] (found in Matthew 27: 60).


SCORECARD:

MATTHEW has 34 references with 4 repeating twice (Isaiah 50: 6; 53: 5; 53: 9; Psalms 69: 21) and a single citation repeating three times (Isaiah 53: 7).

MARK has 27 references and 4 repeating twice (Isaiah 50: 6; 52: 14; 53: 7; Psalms 69: 21), with 17/27 found in MATTHEW (62.9%).

LUKE has 17 references and 2 repeating twice (Isaiah 40: 3; Psalms 118: 26) and a single citation listed three times (Isaiah 53: 9); with 9/17 found in MATTHEW (52.9%) and 3/17 included in MARK (17.6%).

JOHN has 22 references and 2 repeating twice (Isaiah 44: 3; 55: 1), with 10/22 found in MATTHEW (45.5%), 1/22 in MARK (4.5%), and another 1/22 in LUKE, making it (4.5%), too.

COMMENTARY:

Not surprisingly, the gospel of JOHN has the greatest percentage of its prophetical material (45.5%) derived from sources other than MATTHEW; with one each found in MARK, and LUKE, as well as 10 other external references outside these. LUKE has the smallest degree of independent sources because MATTHEW and MARK comprise 70.5% of his prophetical references. MARK is in second place with a 62.9% dependence upon prophesies that are contained in MATTHEW’S gospel; but like JOHN, has 10 other independent citations not included in any of the other gospels. So then, in the entire combined Gospel narratives there are roughly 59 separate citations from the Old Testament Scriptures (“Tanakh”).




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